In 1890, a new upper secondary school curriculum established in the Russian Czarist state was introduced ten years later in Kuressaare. In addition to French and new languages, singing, drawing and gymnastics, an Estonian language appeared in the ranks of faculties of Russian-language upper secondary school. The first Estonian teacher of the Poetry School in Kuressaare became Friedrich Wilhelm Ederberg, the church teacher at Kaarma, whose first Estonian language lesson took place on August 27, 1901 (vkj).
Already in January 1901, the "Saarlane" wrote: "It will remain in Kuressaare that happiness and happiness will be that it is the first on Estonia's surface, where Estonian native tongues will be taught the mother tongue." However, this happiness remained a little bit: when F. W. Ederberg in 1902. He left Saaremaa, he did not find a substitute for him, and Estonian language teaching was interrupted.
Before the opening of the Estonian-language upper secondary school
The "Regulations of the Estonian Provisional Government on Schools", established on December 2, 1918, required that the teaching of Estonian be transposed by January 1, 1919 at the latest. However, minorities remained entitled to education in their own language. In the county, the county council, which was also the county government's education department, became the leading body in school work.
Former Acting Head of the Saare County Government was appointed former Kuressaare City School inspector Kirill Kaasik and Secretary of State Feodor Kanav (Uku Kajak).
On December 6, the county government, Eduard Puki, a physics teacher who arrived back from the First World War, was tasked with implementing the Estonian-language gymnasium in Kuressaare. The collection and writing of scattered assets of schools that were destroyed in war years began.
However, the disputes about the necessity of the Estonian-language upper secondary school went on: further discussions were held on December 16 Council session. The opening of the school was encouraged by Timotheus Grünthal, Chairman of the County Government, Saaremaa Hogo Bernhard Rahamägi and Head of the Department of Economic Affairs Mihkel Neps, where it was found that the costs of the school should be proportionally borne both by Kuressaare City and Saare County. The municipality of Tallinn, however, declined to support the Estonian upper secondary school, some members of the city council considered it even an extraordinary luxury for Kuressaare.
On January 15, 1919, the school named the Saaremaa Estonian Secondary School as its opening. 269 pupils began their studies in the premises of the former boyhood and upper secondary school, of which 173 were in elementary and 96 secondary schools. The teacher's frame was completed, as director since the opening day until August 1940, Eduard Pukk, who was considered a born school principal, but also a good teacher of physics, mathematics and cosmology.
Studying at a gymnasium was charged. The tuition fee, which in 1919 was only 2 kroons a year, it increased significantly over the years: 1923/24. In the academic year it was 15 people in the country and 20 kroons in the city, and even 60 kroons per year at the end of the 1930s. Initially, the study began to take place according to the curriculum of the Tsarist boyhood and upper secondary school, but the fundamental difference was that only the Estonian language was used as a language of instruction.
The transition to mother tongue teaching was also a challenge for educators as there were no necessary textbooks and skills. Johannes Aavik, who worked as a teacher of Estonian at school in 1920-26, used his own brochures and articles written in his teaching, his so-called. Even the director Pukk used to teach the new language in teaching physics and mathematics.
Saaremaa Estonian Secondary School to Saaremaa Gymnasium
1919 The open Estonian upper secondary school was a humanitarian school where students could continue their studies after completing the third grade of primary school. 1922 The "Public High Schools Act" changed the school to five years old, where it was possible to take up after finishing the 6th grade elementary school. The acquisition of secondary education has now been 11 years old. From the same year, the school became Saaremaa Ühisgümnaasium.
1923 In the autumn, the one-way upper secondary school, which has become the real, humanitarian and pedagogical branch, has branched out. In the first two classes, the first five years of study, the third six years. The pedagogical branch was unique in Estonia, being called upon by the great shortage of teachers in Saaremaa. Unlike other branches, education for students in the pedagogical class was completely free of charge. In 1927-1930, the pedagogical class of upper secondary school gave four graduates, or 73 graduate students.
1934 the school reform extended the acquisition of upper secondary school education to 12 years. Saaremaa Secondary School, 5-year-old Saaremaa Secondary School, where the first and fourth year students of the primary school were first and the first grade in the first year, respectively, I or III, started work at Saaremaa Ühisgümnaasium. After graduating from high school, studies could be continued at either a three-year gymnasium or in seminars.
1937 the high school was changed to 5 years old Saaremaa Upper Secondary School and 3 years old Saaremaa Real School. The progynnasium was based on the fourth elementary school, the classroom in the sixth grade. From the same year, the Saaremaa Ühisgümnaasium began to name the Saaremaa Gymnasium, under the name of which the work continued until August 1940.
In the Soviet school
1940s Following the June events, the new authorities also reorganized this multi-stage school system, adapting it to the model of the 11-year Junior University in the United States. Although initially declared to be unconditionally lost, it was introduced in 1940. In October, the children of older children studying "non-productive income" studying in secondary and higher education institutions. The tuition fee outside Tallinn was 100-140 EEK per year.
The existing upper secondary schools were turned into high schools, thus becoming the 1940s. August Kuressaare Secondary School of Saaremaa High School. The former teacher of Estonian language and literature Bernhard Sööt was appointed to replace Eduard Puk, who was removed from the Directorate. The school worked in two shifts: the Estonians on the morning, children of Russian soldiers and base workers on the afternoon. For the latter, the three-year elementary school was organized in the same house. The teaching took place in an unusual and unfamiliar situation, built externally with a lot of red slogans and flags, and with the content of the new ideology. However, the successful completion of the study year was carried out under the guidance of well-off pedagogues: 34 graduates graduated from the school, of which two, Olev Jõgi and Jaan Ratassepp, were granted the right to enter higher education entrance examinations. In addition to the normal admission course, graduation certificates were awarded to ten young teachers who received a primary school teacher in a specialist classroom.
Years of German occupation
1941 The German occupation, which began in late autumn and autumn, once again confused all spheres of life, including education. Retired for 6 years of compulsory primary education, followed by a 5-year high school. The only central educational institution in Saaremaa, now called Kuressaare Gymnasium, was ready for study in 1941. November, but nationwide, the beginning of the school was postponed to upper secondary schools until January 2, 1942. The vice-speaker of the same school, Vambola Klauren, a teacher of Estonian, who returned to his home country, was the director throughout the German Occupation.
Nowadays, school life was largely politicized, only that all important was connected with Great Germany.
1942/43. In the academic year, two first-grade upper secondary schools and three last upper secondary schools were changed in upper secondary school, with the graduate of the lower secondary school having the right to continue their studies either in master's degree or to pursue a vocational school's profession. A total 108-nation-wide tuition fee was set up, which could be lowered by 25% for children from poor families and from poor and family-based families. As a result of war events, those who had earned at least six months in the Estonian Legion or in the security battalion were allowed to be exempted from tuition fees.
Due to the wartime, education was much more uncertain than before: there was a shortage of teachers, firewood, clothing items, academic years remained very short, in addition to mobilization in the German army. All this created a sense of indifference and hopelessness in both teachers and students, dropped out of school performance, weakened discipline.
On January 15, 1944, the Estonian-language upper secondary school celebrated its 25th anniversary: there were festive acts and students' concerts, greetings were brought by the county governor, the mayor and the county governor, but there was not the correct speaker. In February 1944, the Germans took over the schoolhouse, placing a military food show there. Unable to evacuate the warehouse, the house was lit on October 7, just before the city was abandoned, to light up. Together with the house, the school's fixtures, library and archive came.
1944 In the autumn, the education bunker was re-routed to the Soviet school system. The education began to consist of grades 1-4. a primary school that lasts for the school year and the incomplete secondary school (5-7 years). From there, you could go to a vocational school or work, you had to go to school for four years to complete secondary education. In the beginning of the 1960s, the eight-year schooling obligation, which changed to a high school, became three-class (9-11 years). 1956/57. In the academic year, a tuition fee of about 300 rubles per year was issued, which was exempted from the children of the Red Army, murdered by the Germans and invalids, as well as families of children in difficult families and children in difficult economic conditions.
1944 In the autumn, the beginning of schoolwork in Kuressaare was complicated: from the old gymnasium there were after-the-air dungeons, and over 300 windows were broken in the elementary school building. On October 15, 1944, the county's education department, Johannes Valgma, was appointed as director of an open secondary school. On January 10, 1945, after three months of preparatory work, Saaremaa High School opened doors in the former school building of the former town of Garnison. A schoolhouse built for eight classrooms was packed with 18 classrooms with 621 students, of which 185 were in high school. The older classes had to go to school in another shift. In 1949, when Kuressaare Kindergarten High School started its work, the study took place in three shifts. The continuity of rooms was mitigated by the completion of a new schoolhouse in Haridus Street in 1961.
1947 Saaremaa High School was named Kuressaare Secondary School (Pauline Kremm took the school's management from the same year), from 1949 the supplement was added "Viktor Kingissep's Name" and from Kuressaare in 1952. Kingissepp, the school also changed according to Kingissepa V. Kingissepp's name. High school. Over the head of the Soviet era lived through this name. Most of the time, the school operated as a school of Estonian as an Estonian-language school, but when the Russian high school was closed in 1964/65, the upper secondary and upper grades were merged, so that in the years 1964-78, studies were conducted in both Estonian and Russian.
Since 1963, Boris Kivi has been the director of the school, and in 1976 he has been replacing Veli Varik (director since 1989).
In 1989-90, the director was responsible for the long-time head of studies Vilve Männa, from 1990 to the director is Viljar Aro.
In the 1970s, the transition to compulsory secondary education was introduced by the party and government directives. The city's only high school was 1977/78. For the academic year, the number of students, with 102 Russian-speaking schoolboy girls, has risen to more than 1,300, the need for a new schoolhouse was inevitable.
In 1978 On September 1, the town's second Estonian-language secondary school opened its doors on Nooruse Street, the first director was Kusti Kokk (from 1987 to Toomas Takkis). Ten years later, after the restoration of Kuressaare's historic city name, Kuressaare I Secondary School was soon named after V. Kingissepp, and from the second year of secondary school, named after Alexander Mui, just 2 Kuressaare Secondary School, with well over 1000 students. In 1993, I High School returned to Saaremaa Ühisgümnaasium as the first Estonian-language secondary education institution; in 1994, Kuressaare Secondary School II received Secondary School. The end of the 20th century - 21st century Both have become foundations in rapidly changing conditions in the early part of the century, and today they perform their main function as general education schools offering basic and secondary education in Estonian.
Education to the countryside
Until 1945, it was possible to acquire secondary education only in a gymnasium in one and only city, that is, in high school, depending on what was just named as a school at some time. The availability of education during the post-war period initially led to a rapid increase in the number of students, including in rural areas. At the same time, it was difficult for people to go to school beyond economics and poor transport conditions.
At the initiative of Vassili Randmets, a well-known local researcher and local social activist, Muhammad was opened in 1946. In the autumn, the 8th grade of the Bachelor's incomplete secondary school, which laid the foundation for Muhu High School. Kersti Õispuu became the first director of the school.
Students were enrolled in 86, the oldest 26 and youngest 14 years of age. Worked in tight circumstances, lived in the farmsteads of the surrounding villages, but everyone had a great deal of learning and acting.
Until 1953, Muhu High School worked at the Border, but already in 1948, the county executive committee appointed the Orissaare small town as the new location of the school. Thus, Muhu High School was founded, which, in the beginning of the 1950s, was directed by Linda Murko, in 1953, at the end of the 1940s. From the border to Tumala, where it continued under the name of Orissaare Secondary School.
When in 1955 In Orissaare, a new and gorgeous Stalinist high school building, Orissaare Elementary School, which had been operating in two rural Länder of Maasi, and Orissaare Secondary Schools, which had been transferred from Tumala, started to work there. Initially, only Orissaare Secondary School working in elementary and secondary schools originated. In the years 1953-60, Vanda Jõelaid was the director of the school, then Heino Tiidu, until 1979. In 1970 the name of the school was added to the name of Aleksei Müürisepa. From the late 1970s to the present, the school was led by Lembit Söömer (1979-1987), Evi Männik (1988-1995) and Peeter Hansberg (since 1995). 1997/98 The school names the school Orissaare Gymnasium.
1947 School of Adult VIII, IX and X was opened at Leisi Incomplete Secondary School. 1950. The 7-year-old school was reorganized into a general secondary school, the first director of which was Karl Allas, who in 1952 took over Boris Kivi. After being the last to become the director of the city's high school, until 1987, Endel Noor became Head of School.
Due to the insufficient occupancy, in the middle of the 1960s, the Leisi High School was even threatened with liquidation, but the school still remained a curriculum, starting now in 1983. completed in a school building. In the second half of the 1980s, Väino Vaha (1987-94), Lembit Söömer (1994-99) and since 1999 have led the school as director of the school. Tõnu Erin from the year.
In 1953, the Mustjala 7-class school opened with 8th grade with 26 students, which became Mustjala Secondary School from incomplete secondary school. The "Ideas Authors" and the actual launchers of the school were Heino and Ester Tohvert, a young married couple with teachers, the last of whom was 1953/54. the school's first director. In the years 1954-60, he was led by Heino Tiidus. The creation of a secondary school brought about a lifetime of resurrection around the neighborhood. Secondary education was given in Mustjala for 7 years, five flights ended. In 1961, secondary school was reorganized into a 8th grade school giving primary education. In the last high school year, Kaljo Pere, a graduate of the Muhu Secondary School I, was in charge of the school, and remained the schoolmaster of Mustjalga until 1981.
In autumn 1961 a new general education school, Sõmera Secondary School, was started in Saaremaa for pupils in the same tuberculosis anatomy. The duties of the director of the school were performed by the head physician of the institution, the head of the school headed the substantive school work (the first one was Asta Reinart, later Ilme Saarniit-Kruus). There were about ten teachers in the school, students according to how many children were being treated. From 1964 the school went to the Ministry of Health. The last graduates were sent to Sõmera Secondary School in the spring of 1966.