The idea of ​​creating a vocational school in Saaremaa was already considered in St. Petersburg in 1840. Given the development of maritime and shipbuilding, this was of course a maritime school, the real opening of which was still half its century. Kuressaare Maritime School, headed by Johann Prinz (1846-1923), a graduate of the Ventspils Maritime School, began teaching 18th (30th) in November 1891, and worked until the 1915th. In the autumn, during the World War I school, the city of Herson was evacuated. By that time, 347 seamen had received the certificate of the ship's driver.

In the middle of the 19th century, the religious movement in Saaremaa intensified. This was accompanied by competition between Lutheran and Orthodox schools, which was only beneficial for the general dissemination of education. At the same time, higher requirements for the training of school teachers as well as rural municipality officials were set up. In the years 1868-1913, the Nikolai Kihelkonna School (known as the Lutsian school, entered a number of different names during its period of activity) and the Kaarma Teachers' Seminary from 1870 to 1910 acted in Kuressaare, in the field of schoolmasters training in Saaremaa. The first of them was preparing teachers for the Orthodox, the other for Lutheran schools.

Vocational education in the Republic of Estonia

December 5, 1918 The Ministry of Education of the Republic of Estonia, where the Department of Secondary and Vocational Education initially dealt with vocational education issues, was formed, an independent professional competence department from 1 June next year. The main areas of vocational education were developed, where it was considered necessary to set up craft and skill schools, in particular, decent workshops for wood and iron workshops. The main task of vocational schools was to thoroughly teach the skills, together with the necessary theoretical knowledge, as well as the development of the artistic taste of students. All educational institutions had to register with the Ministry of Education - it meant simultaneously the recognition of the school and the receipt of the support necessary for continuing education activities. The financing of vocational education institutions was also handled by local governments.

The fate of maritime education in Saaremaa

On July 2, 1919, the district's school administration discussed the re-opening of the Kuressaare Maritime School. This statement was addressed to the Ministry of Education and, after obtaining the permit, the school began in 1919. Johan Prinz, who was still in charge of his office in October, who, after his death in 1923, was the largest shipowner of Saaremaa, the long-distance vehicle painter Julius Teär (1889-1941). The latter had been working as a teacher for a few years already at school. In the 1920s, when maritime trade concentrated more and more in larger cities, especially in Tallinn, the number of students in Kuressaare Maritime School began to decrease (there were only 14 in the 1927/28 school year) until the government in 1928. because of the lack of school pupils.

However, the provision of maritime education in Saaremaa was not interrupted - J. Teär's Eramer School continued with the same manager until 1941. to spring From October 1, 1938, the school went to the maintenance of the county government, with students in forty circles. The tragic event was the late summer of 1941, when a well-off marijuana and school principal Julius Teär was murdered in Kuressaare castle yard. In the next school year the school was closed.

In the autumn of 1942, Julius Teär's brother, captain Karl Teär, headed the school. There were three classes of class with 42 students who came here from both Saaremaa and Hiiumaa, as well as from the mainland. 1943 In August, the Kuressaare Maritime School was named Julius Teär, Captain Herman Maripuu, Director. Due to the upcoming military action, 1943/44 ended. already on March 25, 1944. On the same day, Kuressaare Maritime School graduated the last 20 ship managers who received this certificate.

In the beginning of the new Soviet occupation, an attempt was made once again to launch maritime education in Kuressaare. 1944 In December, Feliks Voolens, the long-distance driver Feliks Voolens, was appointed head of the educational institution under the authority of labor reserves. At the beginning of the new year, Kuressaare Maritime School was announced for physically fit and healthy junior people from 15 to 16 years old. Only a dozen registered hobby boys. Since at the same time Saaremaa became a strictly controlled border zone, where the study of the continent became virtually impossible, the study did not start. Kuressaare Maritime School, which in 1919 from the time it was located in Suur-Põllu t. 4 was liquidated, his assets were transferred to Tallinn's 3rd Maritime School. This was one of Saaremaa vocational schools with more than half a century of history and traditions, where nearly 700 specialist ship managers were trained and completed their activities.

Maritime education in Saaremaa fell for nearly half a century, until 1991/92. In the school year, Orissaare Secondary School opened its maritime class. Boy girls opened the opportunity to acquire maritime knowledge in Saaremaa, so that they could move to real maritime schools.

Harvest farmers to Saaremaa farms

The newly created Republic needed not only educated ship managers, but also trained farmers. 1919 In the late autumn, Aleksander Kaar (1892-1943), a state-owned, socially-based farmer with diverse interests, headed the Kuressaare Marine School under one roof, worked as an agricultural school. As the school did not have a practical school in the school, the school was taken to school in 1921. Kõljala Manor and is known here as Kõljala Agricultural School.

The two-year agricultural school had a 150-hectare school in the manor center, where students could experiment with the theoretical knowledge acquired at the school. In 1922-51 he was head of the school agronomist Paul Häesk (1888-1979). The school also worked force during the first Soviet occupation and subsequent German occupation. As a result of war events, school work ended as early as 1944. February and continued only in January 1945. The Kõljala Agricultural College was renamed as the new name. In addition to compulsory political subjects and Russian, a wide range of traditional agricultural specialties belonged to the curriculum, but the school managed to maintain its own study field.

1949 In the course of mass collectivization following the March deportation, a collective farm was quickly needed. The study plans for agricultural schools were harmonized with the allies, all the two-year old agricultural schools were changed to one year old. Livestock Farming School was established as a livestock breeding school for the preparation of the heads of collective farms, where, starting in 1951, the training of field breeders was started. The school was named the Kõljala School of Agriculture, worked as directors in 1951. Karin Kivistik-Allik for a short time and Ago Klaassen from 1951-55. Since the post-war years, the continuation of the continuation of education on the islanders was quite difficult for the islanders, even the opening up of a technical class arose for a while. At the same time, the school had serious difficulties with the growing adoption plans.

On October 15, 1954, the last flight was completed by Kõljala Agricultural College - 8 agricultural and 13 animal husbandry technicians. In January 1955, livestock students were transferred to Arkna and agricultural students from the Avantian Agricultural School. This was another chapter in Saaremaa's vocational education history. The kolkhoz cadaver "smith" closed his doors.

Western Sahara Agricultural College

Those boys-girls who acquired elementary education, who had to come to work in their homes before they went to school, were able to supplement their farming practices with agricultural classes operating in primary schools. 1925 Aleksander Kaar, who was already familiar from the front, acquainted himself with the home school of the Lümanda elementary school with a similar one-year training period in addition to traditional agricultural specialties in addition to teaching on mother tongue and literature, mathematics and accounting, civic and moral education, home economics and cooking, practical work in the arena, sigalas, canal and in the garden.

The teaching took place a few days a week until midnight. 1937 In the autumn, the study was changed to two years, new classes were created in Kärla, Pidula and in 1939. In the field field to the primary school. Everyone came to be called the Agricultural College of Western Sahara, which belonged to the school network of the Ministry of Education, who also paid salaries to the teachers. Both the Saare County Government and the municipality concerned contributed to the maintenance of the school. In the second half of the 1930s the agricultural class also operated at the Saareküla Primary School, 1928/29. In the school year, the Upper Secondary Fishing School at Old-Leu Elementary School.

The agricultural classes continued to work in 1940/41. In the school year, in June 1941, their true soul and leader Aleksander Kaar was deported, who for more than twenty years devoted to the education of Saaremaa farmers. However, the work did not survive, still during the years of the German occupation: 1942. In November, upgrading classes were opened in Kaarmal, Pöide, Muhus, Mustjala, Leisi, Pihtla and Lümandas, and the number of students was in 1943. January to 189. The network of agricultural school pupils was also confirmed in 1944. autumn, but then they did not start work anymore.

Farmgirl educated to a farmwoman

The full-time agricultural schools also included one-year home-grown schools, whose task was to provide a comprehensive education for girls, future farmers. A similar school, supported by the state with the support of Saaremaa County Government, was opened in 1929. In January, in the manor house of Karja Manor. At least 16-year-olds and 6-grade elementary school students were admitted to school. There was no tuition fee, the school had a free apartment for students with heating and lighting, the amount needed to cover the maintenance costs (by the end of the 1930s, 12 kroons per month) could also be paid for food.

The school year, with a 2-3 week summer break, when students got a bitter giraffe at home to help their parents, lasted from 15 January to 15 December. In the study, special attention was paid to four areas: cooking, crafts with weaving, horticulture and animal husbandry. Health, parental care, home care, social science, home care, accounting, singing and gymnastics were added. Students were divided into five groups, worked weekly in the kitchen, caretaker, garden, and crafts and home care. For the practical work, the school had its own school.

The first head of the Karje Homebuilding School was in 1931. Linda-Rosalie Wagner-Grünberg 1929 In January, 7 girls began to study, and the first flight ended 10 future farmer. The popularity of the school grew rapidly: in 1931 There were 25 students in 25 places and in 1938. Celebrated the 10th anniversary of the school, and over 200 have been listed among the students who have received family traditions in Karja.

In 1932-38 Linda Jut-Jalvendi was the director of the school. The visit to the school by the President of the Republic of Estonia Konstantin Päts in 1939 was a great honor and recognition to the school. in summer. In January 1940, the study started, as it was still started, in December the school education was already completed in a new country - the Estonian SSR.

The flight that began in January 1941 in the conditions of the Red Army, however, ended the German school under its occupation. Head of the school Linda Parts was deported to Siberia for the school year. In November of the same year, the Education Directorate confirmed Lisette Piiskorbe as the new school principal. In spite of the narrow wartime circumstances, it was celebrated in 1943. solemnly commemorate the 15th anniversary of the home economy school. The popularity of the Farm Dogs School continued to be very large: in 1944, In January, 80 daughters wanted to go to school, only 35 years of study could have begun in the Karja, but soon ended with the exchange of military activities and occupations, not giving fresh graduates. November 1945 with the assets and the rights to the Polli Horticultural-Beeswax Research Institute, inventory and teaching materials were provided to the Kõljala Agricultural College. The time for the Farmers' League was over, the Kolkhoz era awaited.

Kuressaare vocational school story

The only vocational school in Saaremaa, which has been fighting for a while - this is Kuressaare Vocational School today. Due to the recent jubilee, many articles appeared in the history and formation of the school, so the following is a very concise overview. At the same time, this branch separated from this school at the end of the 1930s, laying the foundations for a new vocational school - the women's school and later Kuressaare Building School. Unfortunately, it fades in the "Soviet inspiring conditions".

Construction Instructors' School for Industrial School

1922 On May 8, Saare County Council adopted a decision to open a vocational school in Kuressaare. The initiator of the thoughts was the then State Education Advisor for Vocational Education, Academician Aleksander Poleštšuk, born in Kuressaare (1863-1944). Considering the islanders' reputation as a construction worker, it was founded on November 6, 1922. The School of Building Instructors, a three-year school year, was chosen as the first chairman of the Swedish-based engineer Egolf Roman Hugo Dagobert Nursland (1886-1964, remained in office until 1928). School rooms were found at Court t. 22, the wood shop was located in the t. 12. Actual education began on January 8, 1923. In January 1925 Kuressaare Industrial School was awarded the School of Construction Instructors, where in addition to the construction department there was also a wood and metal working department.

1928-41 Henno (Heinrich) Kahu (1902-41) worked as head coach. 1931 ready on the street on the street to school your house. 1938 In the fire broke out at the beginning of January, its upper floor was destroyed, but by autumn the building had been restored to a higher level than before. In the same year Kuressaare Industrial High School received the Industrial School and a new curriculum with a four-year extension was introduced. 1939 In the autumn, a special class of knitting needles for girls was opened for girls, which, after some years, became the core of a new independent vocational education institution in Saaremaa.

1937 A new part-time vocational school, the Kuressaare Industrial School, where the theoretical knowledge was acquired by at least 6 employees already working with primary education, started work at the industrial school. Completion of the course was obligatory for all those who wanted to acquire a skilled worker or a master's degree. The teaching took place in the evening three days a week, the course lasted for three years.
In addition to specialized theoretical knowledge, the program also included Estonian language and correspondence, accounting, social and institutional education, and singing.

The first flight of the school ended in 1940. May, the next was in 1941. On June 21, however, already graduated from the School of Industrial Students from the People's Commissariat of Education of the Estonian SSR. This type of school also operated somewhat during the years of the German occupation.

Industrial School "Truda School"

1940s In summer, Estonia changed power. Industrial schools and boys' vocational schools were subordinated to the Republican Labor Reserves Government established by the Council of People's Commissars of the Estonian SSR. Teaching at Kuressaare Industrial High School continued in the wood and metal work departments, instead of the construction department, a class of carpenters and bricklayers of the Kuressaare Professional School was opened instead of a two-year course. On June 20, 1941, a graduation certificate was distributed at the school, a few days after the Soviet-German war began. As the frontier approached, the industrial high school began to fill out military orders: the most remarkable of these was certainly two tractor-rebuilt armored vehicles built for the destruction battalion.

1941 Autumn and German occupation. In place of Henno Kahu, mobilized for the Red Army, Peeter Aarla was appointed Head of School. The studies continued in the traditional construction, metal and wood departments. 1943/44. In the academic year Kuressaare Industrial School was named, there were two departments - metal and wood.

1944 autumn and new power exchange. Kuressaare Industrial School, along with other similar ones, went on to become part of the labor reserves (labor reserve reserve), teaching was subjected to the implementation of Stalin's economic policy. The preparations for a massive work-book began.

Names are new, the content is the same

January 15, 1945 started studying Kuressaare Industrial School no. 11 (Kingisepp City Industrial School No. 1952-54, 1952) in the field of repairs, repairs, repairs, and repair work. The course lasted for two years, the training was mainly directed at the Tallinn and Narva factories, as well as Kohtla-Järve mines. Johannes Niit (1944-45), Artur Meos (1945-46), Aleksei Villa (1946-51) and Villem Estorn (1951-54) worked as directors during the first post-war years.

1954 received from Kingisepp City School of Business no. 11 Kingissep Agricultural Mechanization Industrial School No. 2, the main task is to supply Saaremaa and Hiiumaa, as well as Pärnu and Haapsalu districts with agricultural labor squadron. In 1957-62 the school was named Kingissepa Technical Specialist School no. 3. These were challenging years for both the school and the management: during this period, nearly 200 children's groomsmiths were studying, who had to train car repairers and farm repairers for four years, plus they had to get a 7-grade general education.

In 1954-62, the school exchanged 5 directors: Juhan Zvers (1954-55), Johannes Külm (1955-59), Oskar Raadik (1959-60), Endel Rössler (1960-61).

1962 Vocational School was changed to the Rural School No. 1,5 and 2 years. 26, led by Evald Koosma. He remained in this position until 1966, then handed over to Voldemar Kuus. In 1965-68, the school was named "City School Nr. 18. Agricultural bridges were added to the electrical grid and some construction specialties.

In 1969 the city vocational school was renamed the National School No. 26, the main task is still to train the agricultural field. In connection with the transition to compulsory secondary education, the educational institution was reorganized in 1976. Vocational School No. 26, which was introduced in 1979. supplement "J. Ellam's name". Voldemar Kuuse, who had been in charge of a 10-year-old school, changed in 1976. out of Rein Otstavel.

1978/79. Since school year, studies have been conducted in all groups for three years. 1982 Over the course of the autumn, a girls' study group (knitted fabric makers) began to work, which was soon reorganized into a specialist in animal husbandry with a home-based economy. The training of future builders was restored. 1989 In the autumn, the first group of young people with secondary education was adopted, of which two-year study periods were to be received by trained hoteliers-waiters. In the years 1988-90, the school was directed by Toivo Mogom.

J. Ellam's name Vocational Secondary School for Kuressaare Vocational School

The end of the 1980s was a time of rapid change. From the old vocational secondary school under the authority of the Republic, an educational institution that was subordinate to the local executive committee became the Kuressaare Vocational School since September 1, 1990. The following year, Neeme Rand worked as a specialist teacher at the school headquarters.

As the share of agriculture in employment declined dramatically, it was necessary to start thinking about preparing new disciplines. 1992 the agricultural specialties were transferred from the city to an independent vocational school - the Upa Agricultural School, which was soon renamed the Saaremaa Vocational Training Center and in 1998. was reunited with Kuressaare Vocational School. At the beginning of the 1990s there were students in the vocational school in the field of home economics, construction, decoration, tourism and the craft industry.

The Mardi guesthouse (started in 1989) and its 1992 residence in the dormitories of the school increased their supply of accommodation services. A café, essential for the preparation of hotels and restaurants, and the later Cat "Restaurant". Years later new specialties have been added. For centuries, the hotel and restaurant services, business training, crafts and arts and technical departments worked at the school, with the opportunity to choose between more than twenty specialties.

It took 3-3.5 years for the acquisition of an elementary education, with a secondary education of 1-2 years. In cooperation with the Employment Office, it was established in 1996. a separate adult education department. In the new century, the school went to nearly 800 students who were able to acquire skills in a field course of almost a quarter of a century.

Kuressaare Women's School

On October 26, 1942, the premises of the former Kuressaare City Primary School began in Tallinn. 3 jobs from the School of Comprehensive Education of the School of Comprehensive Schools, a lecturer Leida Rava. The school worked with three departments: sewing, knitting and home economics. The Tung school was very large: 224 applications were received in the first fall, of which 86 girls were accepted. The first flight, 20 home economics and 8 knitting classes graduated, received professional certificates in 1944. in March By this time, 125 students at the Kuressaare Women's School.

The last academic year was approaching the front in difficult circumstances: home-economy girls organized catering for mobilized men, so students and teachers taught soldiers gloves, assisted evacuees, and so on.

1944 In the autumn war crimes, the building of the women's school was destroyed with equipment. Students and teachers, however, were able to save some of the yarn's stuff, and so on. materials that were packed in boxes and stored in different places over the hardest times, so that there was at least something to start after the war had begun again.

Kuressaare Handicraft School for construction technology

Laida Metsniit-Vinkel (1921-70), who was also the first post-war director of the school, was the initiator and promoter of the idea of ​​restoration of the women's school. The work was started on January 9, 1945, and since there was no longer a house, it was initially initiated as a subordinate to the premises of the industrial school. The name of the school was in 1945. Kuressaare Handicraft School, then Kuressaare Industrial Technician.

The first reception was announced in three departments: a home economy (probably not open), sewing and weaving. 1945 In the autumn, two girls 'specialties (designing and modeling of clothing and decorative knitting) were added to one of the boys' favorite areas - construction, although girls were really taken. The age of the pupils was between 14 and 30 years of age, the scholarship was paid depending on the course 80-140 rbl. per month, tuition was 150 rubles a year.

The course of the course lasted for 4 years, along with a specialty and technician's invitation, also received secondary education, which allowed many graduates to continue their education at higher education institutions. In addition to general and specialist subjects, teaching and production practices took place. In the first academic year, the school worked with 7 classrooms and 120 students. There was a great deal of roommate, teaching was sometimes done in three shifts and shortened hours.

In winter 1945/46, from the premises of the industrial school Suur-Põllu t. 6, from 1946 summer park 4, in the former Waldmann's residence, which remained the home of the technical school until the end. From August 1, 1946 until the closure of the school, Eduard Pukk (1886-1955), the director of the long-time technical secondary school, led the technical school. 1947 In the autumn, the school was named Kuressaare Industrial and later Kuressaare Building Technology. Traditional girls' professions began to be gradually closed, with the main focus being on the training of specialists in construction. 1948 In autumn, the specialties taught included the creation of green areas, where both boys and girls were taught.

1951 The former boarding house used as a school building was declared to be ruinous, and difficulties were also encountered with the excessive reception plans. 1952 In the spring, the last builders of the technical school and the first and last flight of greenery graduated, the Kuressaare Building Technician was shut down on the same year on the 17th of August. The remaining construction courses were sent to the Tallinn Communal-Construction Engineering School (later Polytechnic School), which also provided the school's fixtures and library. At least 330 boy girls graduated from the Kuressaare technical school during 7 years, of whom 146 graduated. Given the difficult conditions of life and the material possibilities of the years after the war years, the technicians have given many Saaremaa young people the opportunity to get a job without leaving their home homeland.

Külli Rikas,
Saaremaa Museum