Although Timotheus Grünthal's biography has not been included in the new Encyclopedia of Estonia, his work in the construction of the state of Estonia and the place system deserves a closer introduction.
T. Grünthal was born on June 28, 1893, on Muhu Island in the village of Rässa in the village of Luiskam. Father Jaan Grünthal was an enterprising and determined farmer who sent his example to a son throughout his life. As the farm went to Henry's son, Henry, his father thought it necessary for other sons to be well educated to improve their lives.
After graduating from the Hellamaa Parish School in 1906, the young Timothy had to go to Kuressaare to continue her education, waiting for her studies at the City School and Gymnasium. Graduated from Kuressaare Aleksei Gymnasium in 1914, he began to study seniors from the University of St. Petersburg in the autumn of the same year, starting with the old language, but in law.
As a student, T. Grünthal joined the ECS with the Nordic countries. The studies were interrupted in 1916 in connection with the mobilization of the tsarist army, where he, after the end of the Moscow military school in spring 1917, was placed on the south-eastern side with a sticker. However, already in the fall of 1917, we find T. Grünthal from Tallinn, where he was active in the creation of the Estonian National Forces.
During the summer and autumn of 1918, he spent the German occupation under his strict occupation in his home home on the home island. Soon signs began to appear that showed that the occupation army was about to leave: equipment was sent promptly, the construction of the railway had ended, landlords grappled with strange anxiety.
In order not to wait in May for no reason, T. Grünthal decided to go to Tallinn on November 16, 1918 to clarify the situation. He met with Estonian government ambassadors headed by Captain Johannes Poopuu, who appointed T. Günthal as the commander of a former tsarist officer to Hellamaa and the Muhu-Suurvalla Defense League division, organizing the Defense League on Muhu Island.
Ancestor of the Division was enthusiastic about the work. By November 18, he called on the Ambassadors of all Muhu villages to the Liiva Schoolhouse to attend a nationwide meeting to introduce the history of Estonia's independence and the coming tasks. With the lipnce Vassili Kase and the student August Müristaja, the Defense League was organized: weapons were collected, arrested at the Kuivastu harbor, and military objects left behind by the Czarist army.
T. Grünthal was invited to Kuressaards by November 20 to report on his activities and receive new tasks. In the German Provincial Government building, where both the National Defense League and the county government office were located, a meeting of Saaremaa County Council that was elected in 1917 and dispatched by the Germans, which T. Grünthal was invited to attend, took place. It turned out unexpectedly that Kirill Kaasik, the chairman of the county administration, set his office down, while Vice-Chairman Mihkel Neps and secretary Feodor Kanav were still in the German prison camp. Therefore, it was urgently needed to find a new chairman of the county government. This was originally offered to the incumbent peace judge Paul Parts. However, when the latter refused, Ambassador Mihkel Kommel proposed to elect T. Grünthal, 25, as the chairman. Regardless of the encounter, the Council unanimously elected Grünthal as the chairman of the county governorate.
It was hard, but a thrilling and rewarding time in T. Grünthal's life. Everything had to come to an end. The structure and composition of the government were laid down. For the first time, the County Government came to the rent warehouse of T. Grünthal at the hotel "Gold Leather" on November 22 in Lossi Street. Four things started to work: T. Grünthal - Chairman, and Aleksander Velvelt, Kirill Kaasik and Johannes Kesküla - members. In December, M. Neps and F. Kanav, who escaped from prison camp, were added, after some time the government consisted of eight members. Independently, it became possible to act only from December 6, 1918, i.o. after the departure of the German occupation forces.
The situation in Saaremaa was catastrophic. The First World War and the ensuing German occupation have devastated both industry and agriculture. The unemployed population hung on the border. The county government actively sought ways to restore economic life and bring the island's life to the normal races. At the same time, it was necessary to take into account the needs of the country fighting for freedom: to organize the mobilization of the islanders for the defense of their homeland, to carry out the requisition of foodstuffs, horse racing and other equipment to the military, etc. The terrible and unexpected challenge to T. Grünthal's government was the Saaremaa rebellion that began on January 16, 1919, when Kuivustus began, as on February 4, the chairman of the county government had said before the county council: "The anxiety and hooliganism that had disappeared in the country after the Germans left the country. is liquidated and personal protection and social security in the county are insured. "
As a member of the Labor Party, the election of the Kuressaare City Council, the Asutava Kogu, and later the 1st Riigikogu, increased T. Grünthal's workload and responsibility even further. On May 6, 1919, he held his first long speech in the Constituent Assembly, criticizing the central government for not understanding the specificity of the situation in Saaremaa, which ultimately pushed desperate farmers into arms. From time to time, T. Grünthal sent a copy of the "Our Earth" newspaper, one of its founders, about the activities of the Foundation.
In 1919, T. Grünthal had a big change in the private life - she married her daughter Veraga, then Foreign Minister Jaan Poska. The wife moved her husband to Kuressaare County Government. September 18th. The birth of a woman also brought about a change in lifestyle - until then, the chairman of the county governor shared a spacious apartment with his friends from the boyfriend, from now on the latter had to retreat. Since T. Grünthal often came to work in Tallinn in the Occupied Amount, Vera also started looking for an application. Here was helped by Eduard Pukk, the head teacher of the husband, who hired a junior clerk and a teacher of history and civics education.
The Kuressaare period, however, remained short for the Grünthal family. Verat was increasingly drawn to Tartu - the city was bigger and wicked, but the main thing - there was a university there, and both spouses were unfinished. After long weighing, T. Grünthal decided to favor Tartu, and returned to the chairman of the Saaremaa County Government on August 26, 1920.
Timotheus Grünthal's judge's career began here. In Tartu, he initially received a Senior Assistant Judge at the Tartu-Võru Council, then from February 1921, he was given an extra court seat. In 1922, T. Grünthal graduated from the university and was appointed a permanent member of the Tallinn-Haapsalu City Council in the same year, and for some time became chairman of the civil division of the same court and assistant chairman of the council. In 1928, the Riigikogu elected him to the Supreme Court, in 1939 he became the head of this civil division.
T. Grünthal also has the privilege of developing a law in addition to a practicing judge. Since 1933, he was a lecturer in civil law and process at the University of Tartu and was a lecturer at the Estonian Police School and the High School of War. In 1936, he successfully defended his thesis on "The Right to Deposit, in particular the Right to Deeds in the Law of Rome, German and Baltic Law", printed in 1937. A number of his legal articles have appeared in the magazine "Law", of which he was editor of the editorial board. According to T. Grünthal, the Estonian Encyclopedia published in the 1930s all articles on civil law and proceedings. He has also been a member of the Commission for the elaboration of draft laws set up by the Ministry of Justice.
Like many prominent Estonians, the Grünthalites' family was forced to flee Sweden in 1944 because of the red danger of danger. A new habitat was found in Lidingö, on the outskirts of Stockholm, where a two-room apartment, a spacious kitchen, a bathroom and a balcony was rented. In Sweden, T. Grünthal's community activities continued, while in 1945 he was 52 chairman of the Estonian Committee. The task of the Committee was to promote the cultural and economic life of Estonians living in exile, to protect their rights and to fight for the restoration of Estonia's independence. He has also published a number of scientific articles on legal issues related to exile. When in 1952 the Law School of the Estonian Academy of Sciences was called in Stockholm, T. Grünthal plunged into the preparation of young Estonian lawyers.
An outstanding state and municipal organ and lawyer Timotheus Grünthal died unexpectedly at his home in Lidingö on the 29th of May, 1955, at the age of 61 years. He was buried in the Lidingö Cemetery.