It was the spring of 1892. The 23-year-old Oskar Kallas was on a final examination at the University of Tartu, and a letter to her parents went to Kaarm:

"... all the prophets were happy with the oliwad and picked me up as candidates, and now weel showed scientific work (in writing) to them, I have a pin in my pocket. With my first joy I drove to Rudolf (O. Kallas brother Rudolf Kallas (1851 - 1913) was a pastor at that time in Rõuge). He had the pleasure, of course, wist weel more than I had, clapping all the paper money in the party and commanding to drive to Hurbu; however, it seemed a bit more money in this tarwis, and that's why we woke up and I would have to go to the Finnish Song Orchestra. weel a little bit of finnish waadata, but I hope I will be home at home. "

The invitation to the song festival was attended by the Estonian Students' Society, which was presided by Oskar Kallas at that time. Friday In the morning of June 17th, three travel companions (the other students were from Soonet and Lesta) in Tallinn met together and one day on a ferry boat "Oulu" to Helsinki. Travel impulses gathered a lot, interesting and instructive, and five long letters reach the home of Kaarma, which are now being preserved in Tartu Literary Museum. We try to pass on their most interesting passages, having chosen the keywords of the human culture, language, intercultural relations, work, education, language skills and temperance. The much-developed trip that was planned for this purpose was undoubtedly a very important part in the development of O. Kallas's vision and future. It is noteworthy that his relationship with his parents and others. homeless people who received both travel ideas from the young man and fiction. And surprisingly, many of O. Kallas's thoughts and references are topical today ...

So, on June 19th (ukj.) At night at 2 o'clock, O. Kallas puts on paper:

"On Friday afternoon, at 6 pm, we arrived in Helsinki, from which, after half a hour later, we traveled to the city of Turku on the wake of the steamboat" Hebe ". It was a beautiful ride: my brace does not understand this curiosity. All night, so walge that our mammag The book would allow you to read: warm weather, wes waga as a glass of the mirror. All the time (on a boat for 18 hours) the island is on the island's edge, thousands of islands on both sides of the road. The names peawad they all have, but who should all know, I would do it without wastu waidlemata "The candidate for the science of the arts". The boat was filled with a wooden blade, all "for the songwriter on hike." The music chorus played a lucid piece. When you heard that we spoke Estonian, there was a wars question: Oleteko Virolaiset? " Now there was a sweet talk. Fortunately, I understand a bit of the Finnish language, so that it can already be done with a good conversation; where the tongue was running out, then the cute country would await awesome. At Laupäewa lunch we were in Turku; the first was to look for a flat. Of course, we went out to the commission of the studio apartment, and a beautiful apartment with one of the schoolchildren at the Eeriken katus 24 was run over.

The first thing I saw was the turnip, the Finnish students, the soldiers and other young men. It was really beautiful: the students were all in Finnish wärwides: blue trousers, walge shirt, blue wool wool. But men were good men, and made their own thing beautiful and beautiful; tournaments all over you, marching n. n e. (Finland's Kommando is also available in Finnish).

On the turn, he made a concert on the way. Concerts are now 4-5 individual choirs every day at the Song Festival, so you can go from the best to the best. Concerts are in the so-called "University" hall of the event. Before this university, however, the university waited in Helsinki when it burned in 1827; The house is again rebuilt and is the governor's castle, as well as the concert house. From the concert, we trawis the Park of the Fog, where the great historicist party was. The baptisms of the first Finns were performed. It was beautiful and so moved my heart that I really wake up in the eye. I vote for the 160th person wõtsiwad part of the move.

Now one wounded man came to me, wabanded all the wise that he was deceiving me and asked the mimd for his table. [It] was one of the Swedes John Lindquist. Before, we found her mother and 2 students from Stockholm and Uppsala. I was sitting with them for 4 hours, and I went to bed with fun. But you should have heard how we spoke. The Swedish student did not understand German, we danced with the Latin language, Lindquist's proud Finland, Lindquist's own German. They again spoke Swedish. Now another Swede, Schulz, who lived for 23 years on the Amur River, also wanted to show what he was doing, and so we put the wen's tongue out so that the true hearts of the Ammulu were heard. Schulz even blew us up in Chinese and Japanese, Swedish and Norwegian and Danish speakers, and I was not the last one, I certainly brought the language of the Estonian language, and to answer something in Schulz's Chinese language, then the wana Sanskrit song had to help us with the weel exam had time to mind. "

In the following, Kallas describes the impressions of the second day of the day: visits to the Dome Cathedral, the Museum and the Caribbean House, and student choirs' concerts. He concludes:

"One must say that the most beautiful houses in Finland are most schools and other people's institutions: for such things they understand the walad of their cliff boulders."
"As far as the song is concerned, the Finns are still ahead of us."

In the late 20th of June, Kallas will continue to write a letter, gives an overview of the big concert and adds:

"The members of the song choirs are the most educated people who have done large schools and upper secondary schools; here, educated Finns are not afraid to mention themselves to Finns, as in our country, where men who have already gone to school in Germany and Germany in Germany There is a well-educated state in Finland, and we do not have that: we have much of a farmer's position and who leaves education, it leaves the Estonian people too "

There are quite a lot of observations about Finns, for example:
"Most of all, there is white blood: if they are not beautiful, they are still terve and dirty, and this is due in part to the fact that even the girls in the schools learn very carefully".

The second letter will be completed on June 23rd. 8 pages:

"Today, again, letting the wihma, like a bee warrest and ruining a lot, wanted to go to the wars in the morning near the town, but the weather was bad, then we went to the wang of the city to look at. Now I thanked God for not having seen that I had seen the Finnish wangimaa. I say If you've been through it, it's quite funny for yourself to sit here for a while. But I'm telling you better from A to O that I saw.

You do not have to, dear wanners, not everywhere, to read my long messages. My heart is so glad and grateful that through the education I have received through you, you may have been so beautiful and new to see and hear that I will try to show you my gratitude. "

The prison house thoroughly revealed to the three Tartu students the director himself. Oskar Kallas will have the idea of ​​writing a story in a newspaper in Estonia, but

"Do not let the censor go: how can anything work better than the Wenels [...]. The Wangs are prone to make all the voices [...], not as we wander and new to evil. [...] Today, I said In Finland, there are three beautiful things, the Earth, the Song, the Whites - now I put the weel prisoners in the fourth place: if this day does not improve, this is not possible. "
Already in the night of June 24, Kallas once again finds "there is enough to write" - and the following 8-page letter is ready.
"Describe the last day of the day for you, the most beautiful of all. [...] At 7 o'clock in the morning, the party was played on the spot at the music and at 9 o'clock the general singing of all the choirs started."

Hearing was heard between the songs.
"The Swedish speech was from Senator Mechelin, the rector of the University of Helsinki in Finland, Rein. We can not talk about this, if these men do this, no one was afraid of what was right, we were told:" Now, the common Swedes and The Finns, now, who are afraid of the waelen outside ... [...]

At 2 o'clock, the big feast started in a beautifully built city theater. [...] If you might have arranged to eat a meal then it was a big mistake, a door to call came for work (in those days, of course, I did not eat; I watched 600), and if a little wahe time was, then we were taught us a party with wizards [...] our "Virolaiset" we even got a private party for speech and health dr. By Setla and after that, a lot of glasses of ours came along with us. (Today our names are already in the Finnish and Swedish newspapers, that Estonian folks and members who were singing and singing at the party were welcome songs.) [...] We got so many acquaintances, I visit the maps and name them the book, but I do not remember the name anymore. [...] The ending of the Song Festival was an uplifting [...]

We live here with one Finnish: Erwin Lode together. It has all the familiarities and relatives of Finnish land, just like our provinces. He's a kind, kind and friendly man (Speaks 7 languages) and we've got a lot of tufts for him. He also introduced me to one of Ali Ali Trügg's mothers (Maria Alexandra Trygg: she was a famous Estonian folklore esthophilist in 1891) in Helsinki. This is a famous woman in all of Finland. On the song festival, I saw how the Kuberneirs, the Rector, the prophets of all went to him to cry. He has traveled around the world (from 35 to 40 years old wana) He has (perhaps not got money himself) several large schools and poor houses built in Helsinki where there is something "rahwa thing" about; Attending Women's Congresses in America and England at n. n e. He called us to live in Helsinki, and then I will write more from the schools.

Prohessor dr. With Setla, whom I met in Tartu, I also met here. I asked him if I should get to Helsinki when I understand Finnish. He argued that this might well be possible, especially in the German language school masters, they have a great shortage. In Helsinki, I want to talk about this matter with the other Prophet, Aspelin (who wanted me to take care of me). If I have hope, then I will still try to fall into the Finnish countryside, whether I am a school masters or some other way to get the languages ​​of this country.

In the evening, there was a big ball at the theater in the studio, so beautiful, brilliant, and awesome, if I have not seen it for sometime, we are not able to reach out to them; I got enough of them here too, I got some nights up to 350, so my wana's heart began to melt even further, and reminded me of the wan somewhere, sometimes I looked around like a pretty lady. But this "sickness" will go along wars again.

The most spectacular was that the small preels (quite "Germans") and the Finnish language, which is still closely related to the Estonian language, is the same. Finnish is a worthwhile Swedish language here, in some places it seems to be even taller: prepositions of Finnish are predominantly Swedish, and the first language was still in the front of the Song Festival Hall; I have also noticed that where Somme. and Swedes are meeting, they are mostly talking about the Finnish language. Do we have to be so far in our lifetime, ours, who, whenever we dare to speak the Estonian language at somewhere, we will suddenly sculpt the wars, nobody should hear. (The Finns also have the status of a landlord, so the governor here, General von Kremer, is a Finn, and I myself have heard him speak Finnish). "

On July 1, Oskar Kallas writes the fourth letter - 24 pages, of which 13 are the impressions received during four days in Helsinki - in the "German room" "Yaha-Laukoskil" (45 versts north of Helsinki). This is a fascinating piece of reading, but because of its length we present only the most interesting sections.

On June 25th, from Turku, a ship returned to Helsinki:

"When we drove from Turku to Helsinki, even the captain of the ship, who came from Stockholm, asked if we could not be from Tartu, I wondered where he knew it," I can not read the seitunes. "- So then, the beautiful" incognito "has passed here too, and if you do something, then think of it as a premise that you are known as a letter to a dog."

He also remembers the beautiful Jan feast of a merchant Lindquist's summer home on one island where guests have gathered over 30. Again, he is pleased that people have several languages:
"This is because the Swedes and Finns are wandering a lot of travel; most of us with whom we have gotten out of the country; they also have a lighter journey, because there is a large number of travel grants and grants, and they are given when someone has done a lot of work and now looking for a divorce, if he wants to investigate a thing.
On Saturday morning at 8am we arrived in Helsinki where we were waiting for the apartment; but the time weel was very early, then we set up the city and the market and "we learned to know the people", which brings marvel at all the places in Finland, it's here: tremendous cleanliness. [...] The fish that is sold are mostly living and fresh water inside. In Riga I saw the same, but there was no cleanliness in Helsinki.

The vans here are the most commonly used gum witches, so there are no other noises at the time of driving, than the horses' horses. The best of the market is to rule once again. Everything is so set up, if at any moment a high-pitcher, or a reviewer, is waiting for someone to touch.

After two hours we walked in to the palace of Aili Trügg's door, who promised us in the Turu Priya apartment: "You must also worry about a sandwich in the morning and in the evening, lunch" - He is not the "emancipierte Dame"; here in Finland they are not of the same kind as wene ones; The wise people think that they've done everything already, when they cut their hair short, the boot swabs out and smoke from the tricky tobacco. - Finland has this variety, at least as much as I have seen, teewad work; they are here and there in societies, they are talking, they establish happy and instructive festivities n. n e. ; they demand that the women be given the right to worry about themselves and to work, so that they still can not be considered "to be a dog" to be born of, no one else, than to a man's play basket.

Their quest shows me somewhat right on some side, if they really go along, maybe, as well as one of the new things. The named mother, Trügg, was also a co-worker: she is the publisher of the seitung, the head of a major folk-house house, and the head of some atrocities n. n e. n n e. With all this, he is through and through a devout man. One of his major works is the house "for the people".

This is a large two-story building: everyone can work there, everyone who wants to come in, read books, read magazines, talk, talk about work. n e. On Sunday, there are instructive calls, here is the song of the song and the play, where everyone is taught at no less. The purpose of all this institution is to counteract this, so that young people, especially the workers, do not throw in and do not harm at their own time, not in the taverns. Mrs. Trügg said she did not have a copywriter when she started building the house. "I hoped, however, to vote for the Bible: if you believe in the size of the mustard, then you can raise the mountain" and this faith has not deceived me.
[...] He has received much help from the city [...]

Afterwards, we could hear why he called us to his head and gave birth to lots of fun. We had a great hammer from Tartu, where we lived, when we considered the dining room of the Nursery home very expensive. Because we also talked to Miss Trügg, "We do not earn much money in Finland, we have our own food, and when the money runs out, we will fall into the woods and we will sleep in a loaf". This was very much overlooked. "These are not the men who have come to Finland to land the money and move from one hotel to the point: they must help." [...] I stayed for her for four days.
Then I went to a large crowd of people who built Finnish students; Of course, they have received a lot of help from the Finnish kroon: here you saw all the life of the Finnish people: the whole farm's rooms are well-structured, people (wax and wood) are inside, just as they live: mother eats cook, old woman reads Bible, little daughter moves Latvia. I can vote for it all the house utensils, work clothes, musical instruments, samples and patterns of clothes for the people, fishing gear and field implements n. n e. [...]

I also went to one school, where educated women were doing all sorts of work, especially the fruit of the study. They teewad work here 6 hours a day for a master crawler and pay 20 marks (8 rubles) per month. 8 weeks is the time to learn: beautiful work can be seen here: the main thing is that not only educated peers will not be embarrassed to work and earn their own bread, as our side, where it is already shamed when someone sells his ornaments to sell the store.
We drank the lunch once in the dormitory of the atrocities. Everything is beautiful and clean here, the food is good and inexpensive (the price for the south was 50 pennies = 20 kopecks). [...] Such majasi and teewee houses are the right place in Helsinki: there are also lots of newspapers and books to read in every one, here, people could come forward with their prize funny, our party was forced to go to the tavern in the lower part because everyone wants to have fun for divorce and if he does not find him from another place, he will go to the tavern. "[...]

Along with the detailed description of the city of Helsinki, parents will also be informed of the visits of prof. J. R. Aspelin and a teacher at Lönnroth's homes, both of whom encouraged O. Kallas to warm their studies in Finland. Traveler's Way But ...

"From Helsinki, we had an advice to drive to Imatra and go to the north, as far as the wallet allowed. However, we missed out on a lot more happily." One young Finnish veteran, Ilmari Krohn, promised to come to our dreams, and his father was a prochessor in Helsinki (drowned for two years She is currently a Proffessor, she has been studying music for 4 years in Leipzig, plays wonderfully and has performed many songs from the Finnish nation (she is 24 years old). She knows the country through and through, and we have a lot of voices I think that he is going to have a lot of cheaper trips, and we will see more than 10 more kurd than otherwise. On the trip, we will speak Finnish for one day, Estonian is the real day (L Krohn understands Swedish and Finnish, as well as German, French and Russian) , and practicing both of them. The trip goes to our feet, if it happens, also on a steamer or railway. In Helsinki we bought our own knives and shirts [...] and then go on a journey.

At midnight (June 29th), after lunch, we sat in the steamboat "Sibbo", and sail in Koivonieme [...], hours from Helsinki. The poet lives on Krohn's cross father, one of Finland's greatest writers: Zacharias Topelius. He has written plays, novels, songs and children's tales. [...] His mansion, of course, is also on the shores of the sea. Wanamees, in spite of their 74th year, welled in full swing and talked with us a lot. He showed us a lot of lorber walks, albums, pictures, n. n e. which the people gave him: their names we had to write a great book, to which all the wicked were the ones who had visited him. We shall be, so he said, the first Estonians who came to him at Koivunieme ... [...]

At night, we slept in Topelius, from which we traveled on Thursday morning at 5 o'clock. We went through bogs and mosquitoes, but we also had a little bit of mischief, but because of wiga. The lunch was a trip this day (30 versts) behind her back. In the beginning of the road, we visited most of Sweden's villages. In Helsinki, and the islands are dominated by peasants, most Swedes, followed by the Finnish village. In both of them the farms are clean and tidy, the houses are painted in red by the people. In the large family room there is a rubber-coated dish, where you can cook: there are 2 to 3 shelves in the hall, where you can cook plates, make and clean a rattled beech and stain-and-steel stoves: all as a sardine in a mundry, so clean. I have one or three more rooms in this room; the floor clothes go over the room, so that you can not see the naked floor anywhere. The curtains are in front of them, the pictures are on the walls, the ceiling is painted, the walls are on the wall.

We live here with a Finnish farmer and stay three days here. [...] The apartment is odaw, because we pay 50 Ko for the apartment, passport and meal. man's head a day. The meal is so numerous that we still have to ban. (Left to eat 4 meals) [...] Now, I'm writing you pretty well enough: do not miss seeing it. Saturday night is on hand and now the cousin calls the housekeeper's sauna. [...]
I hope the home is in good shape. Oskar sends lots of terwits to everyone. "

And now the last letter of this trip to us is in front of us, the longest (34 pages), written on July 5 - 12, 1892. The Traveling Group stopped for a long time! Kassila Manor is 80 miles away from Helsinki, the prosperous Pessola farm and the Ahon-Pelto Manor on the shore of Same lake. Mikkel Ferosti and Hirvensalme's nominee, went to the cities of Heino and Mikkel and many other places.

"On Sunday I went to the Fornes church, I had a fair moment of thought that I was gone, but I have to admit that it was also a pest of joy, because to this day all those who saw in Finland were better than ours, the thing was overturned here. the lungs are more beautiful and bigger, our church song sounds more and more heartfelt ... [...] This church, as well as many others that I saw, are woodenly decorated, the tower is very high in the church and is not very high. There are some, but they are small. (Keter Mihkel, you can bring me a lot of health and tell me that the clock worker should clean the floor of the church every Saturday, perhaps to scour it: there is no here the dust of a ton of thick pine trees and a donkey pedal under the paddle ) Our Saaremaa fashion is that men are glad when the church bells are sung, I saw here too: when they come to the church, they go to the church to make a deep "Knix" (some will strike in front), the younger looks like this fashion, but already disappearing. [. ..]
What weel was biting with was that somebody did not fall to the knees for prayer, as our side [...]

The church garden is next to the most popular wars church, as it was from us. I have not seen crucifixion here either. You know, because there's no shortage of these kites. The central grave is a wicked tree post, with its top floor paper. "

Parents are given a precise idea of ​​how the water gates work between Lake Vesijärv and Lake Paijane, which has a half-truss channel. I'm sorry to have a new calendar in Finland, but in Russia and Estonia ...

"We do not know how we once got to the true nations of Europe with the calendar on the one hand: weel a hundred years ago, then things are so far away that we have Jaanipäev Aprilli kuu. Someone Wene kartp may have been a worshiper of the wana calendar saying that if The weather is going to be condemned, then the Russians still have 12 days to live - or this papi-a joke to fix things.


One of the unexpected pleasures I received was on the Pessal farm. We were actually "torn from the limits of milk". That brings a little bit of explanation. Until today, we did not get sour milk from the peasants, as if he had fashion, we even wiped out the so-called "pitka milk". This is how he says that he, from Finland, says, "Wibirini wenit" from Helsinki. She is just as much milk as what her mom's home with juniper branches, palawa kivi, and a golden ring with a ring: he was born of "an evil eye" with us. But here, by doing this thing, it has been obsessed with such a wicked darkness that this milk is best served. At Pessal Farm we got our sour milk again, and I have to admit that I learned to do the right thing when I was dying.


There are no pubs in Finland; they are all lost. For this, however, there are people who leave postal stations, that is, overnight stays: here you can eat odawa for a price, a night house, a woodi, a kohvi. You can also get a horse from this (Post horses are so cheaper than arwata in Finland). Napis can not get here: beer is a sailboat, passengers are not given to their villages. For this, you will be able to make coffee, tea and a good cliff.


I've seen a drunk farmer because of it: they are the most prosperous people of all, which, of course, are due to the fact that not every year, millions of rubles do not pour through the throat, as far as our side, where 2/3 of the houses in the womb are beer and wiina shops are.

Some words here are still from Finnish peasants. They are confused with the fact that they are richer than ours, which means that they: 1) drink very well 2) that they have never been slaves for sometime: everyone is his own owner and lives in a farm inherited from his father's fathers (Wähe is so called "tormented "who, after working days, will receive land from the manor's hero). Earth seems to be poorer and worse than ours, but people are more energetic. The field is cultivated with great care; Manure is picked up where it can be. The branches of the tree are cut into small ones, a hunter is caught, where the cows and foxes fall asleep and mow them. From the lakes, mucus and grass are thrown and brought to the field. Then there's another wonderful field-cultivating fashion. The forest is cut down, burned, and the earth is trodden down. [...] For the first time, the rye is eaten, the next two years, an oar, then it will fall, the forest kaswab will survive and the new birch will be taken up in the workplace. I do not have to The way is right, because a lot of forest fails.


One thing here is quite a Saaremaa way: there is a lot of fear here: the truth is, however, that the two countries are going to divorce: we also have some kind of help, here are some of them, so do not cling to the tides. Many larger and more manageable roads are gorgeous.


Public life here is much farther than we do; we live everybody for our own needs, worry about ourselves for ourselves, here the life of the society is high and nobody is asking for a foothold: what then will I do when I do this and do it. That is why the Finnish schools and public institutions are so upbeat.


Well, I am in Finland one step up: I am "Master Kallas" here, I am a candidate from home. In Finland, these two names mean exactly the same thing. [...]

One common thing here in Finland was that I was not happy at all: here it is eaten aloud; When I started, my stomach was still empty, now I'm already accustomed to eating lunch for 10 minutes. All the cold dishes are served in the south: fish, meat, sausage, pies, then it's just lunch itself. Coffee and tea are cooked very much. Coffee can be 3 to 5 times a day: in the morning he is brought to his bed. Peasants also drink plenty of coffee and tea. Our farmer does not know much about these drinks, as if they once boil their coffee, often complaining about it when it comes to working people in Saaremaa: "Leen was otherwise good, a lot of coffee beans, dumplings, did not want to go soft." [...]

Oskar Kallas completes his meaningful travel articles in the following way:

"It's quite a pity to leave here / Ahon-Pelte manor / do not go away, but I think tomorrow is going to the road to Imatra, I will arrive in Imatra 3-4 days after Savolinna, and I hope that I will find your letters for you. If everything is good at home, then I mean, I will stay for a while, I can not wait to see the Finnish land any more, so it's okay and good. Anttola's mansion came from one of the students, maybe the son of the master's son, weel, comes to Imatra.
Now I leave you this time with God. Your son, wend, and seven times Onkel Oskar will send you a lot of health to all the little ones and large ones. "

Selected and commented on ELLEN'S GIFT,
Saaremaa Museum Two-year book 1993 - 1994