When it comes to the weather, the primary human food is milk. One of the healthiest food products is its entire lifetime. In order to keep the human teeth and skeletal muscles healthy, at least three glasses of milk should be taken daily. Concentrated cheeses can also be found in milk. The preparation of cheese was one of the first methods of "canning" milk.

Cheese is an ancient food product. Crete Island in the years 1400-1200 e. Kr. Among the victories collected in honor of Poseidon, 15 cheesecakes were listed. An important place in the cheese was the moon grass of the Ancient Greek Army. Seppas, poets, livestock, livestock, etc. The iconic emblem of Brigitte (Irish Brigitta; 453-525) has a goose and a cheese next to the cow.

The cheese is preserved for a very long time - for example, cheeses of two hundred years old were auctioned in England in 1993 in an auction. D. D. Mendeleev's famous discovery is also associated with cheese. He was going to inspect the Tver province's cheesecloth when the "spirit came" suddenly and the chemist set up a periodicity table for writing elements. Cheese industry was delayed.

It is known from Saaremaa that livestock farming has been dealt with here since the 1st millennium BC. Kr. This suggests that the art of cheese making was long known to the islanders. One of the first reports of cheese making in Saaremaa dates back to 1569.-71. From the year when the farmstead of Kõrkvere Lake belonging to the Maas Manor was also required to give cheese.

In order to increase the milk yield of cows, Saaremaa manor houses began to perform breeding work, which consisted in crossing the local herd from high-yielding breeds introduced from other countries. For example, it is known that in the Lööne manor, there were already 47 Dutch cows in the Lööne manor and a Dutch breeder in addition to a young animal.

It is known from the czarist that the owners of the manor, von Ekesparre (Eikla) ​​and von Sass (Kaarma-Suuremõisa) initiated in 1876, The farm exhibit of Saaremaa was exhibited in East Frisian, Angler, Dutch, and others. breeds of cattle. Chef Albert Schlup was born in 1914. Crimean simmental breeds of cows.

In the year 1876, R. R. Jakobson said: "The Estonian people were familiar with butter and cheese in very old times [- - -], then in the middle of his time he disappeared."
And really - it took foreign cheese makers who would have put cheeses up again. However, cheese making in Saaremaa was not completely forgotten by that time, as the products of the manor owner von Dellingshausen were represented at the first World Exhibition in London in 1851.

From the announcements of the newspaper Arensburger Wochenblatt in 1875, it can be said that the so-called " The merchant Reichardt, who lived in Venice, offered muhu and local cheese along with many cheeses.
In 1876, the merchant Neundorf offers a product made from Pichland, such as tea cheese and others. Spotted hair.

In 1884, Laugu manor, where the dairy was led by Miss Lukezin, was sold in edo, chester, fat, semi-fat, lean, and potato (Potkäse).

The cheese was prepared in these manor houses, where there was a large dairy cow and a good quality milk control. The cheesemaster itself controlled the cow's health and was not sent to the cheesecake of milk from cows with diseased udders. The precepts were also made during feeding. For example, cheeses giving cows should not be fed potatoes. The milk was brought to the cheesecloth of the spring cartridges, so that it would not go out too much. In the nearest plots, the milk was placed on the shed by a stonewool. High-quality milk was also taken from the cheesecake from nearby farms. From there, milk was placed on 15-25 liters of milk in the milk or handcuffs made for this purpose.

When the milk dishes were poorly washed, the cheese dipped into ashes in empty containers. Made mainly of Swiss and Edami, but also gouda, limburg, dutch, kammenbäre and baksteni cheese. The Swiss cheese wheel could weigh even over 100 kg. When one of the cheesecakes was stolen from Kärla Manor, the thieves could not remove it and in the morning the cheese was found along the trail of the barley.

By-product cheese or whey was used to fatten pigs. So, at the Schlup cheese factory in Kuressaare, 120 and 80 liters per day in the Danish region, they were brought alive with sailboats abroad, mainly Finland. Schlup suggested whey to be a resort therapist.

Milk chambers were not made anywhere in all manor houses where cows were kept. The mass production of cheese began in the last quarter of the 19th century, but it has been industrially made here earlier (Karl Feldmann in 1843 in Tõlliai and Kuusnõmmel).

From written sources, it has been possible to find data on more than 20 Saaremaa cheese cakes. Cheeses belonged to a local landowner or milk man. The masters were mostly invited from Switzerland, where there was a long history of cheese making. The Estonians also learned about the office later. Cheese making art was kept secret. When the champion had added milk to the milk and could count milk as a "flake", he kicked the cheesecakes to show his magic to the attendants.

The most important cheese industry, which was known more widely, was a large cheese factory between Suur-Kaarma manor houses located in Kuressaare, Kitsa. 5. The house has been rebuilt to this day. Mention should be made of cheeses of Kingli, Parasmets, Pihtla, Taaliku, Karja, Laugu, Tõlluste, Kärla, Paadla, Mõntu, Pädaste, Kangruselja, Lööne, Tiinuse, Kargi and Loona.

Alien Cheesemakers have left the trail of Saaremaa Milk Lock with the traces of Mühlemann, Emil Neukom, Gottfried Benedict Zeller, Lukezin, Kilsemann, Sürs, Krähenbühl, Jürgenson, Baer, ​​Emil Spring, Adolf Imhof, Albert Schlup and others. Most of them were Swiss.
The most famous Estonian cheese masters were Alas, Ammjärv, Riidu Ritser, Miina and Otto Soonsein, Villem and Karl Vaher, Jaan Einmann, Juhan Vapper, Aleksei Steinberg, Aleksander Aavik, Juhan Kuus, Aleksander Kaubi and Johannes Suurpere. Many of them came from Tartu.

There were usually two workers working in the cheese factory who did other work besides cheese making. In the main period there was a vast handicraft, but Kingli, Loona, Pihtla, Parasmetsa, and others. Cheeses were driven by mechanisms of horsepower. Riverside companies (Rootsiküla, Parasmetsa) also disposed of water. Later, it was applied to the locomotive in the cheese dairy farm in Tõru, Parasmets and Kuressaare Pika Street.

For a long time, cheesecake cheese cakes and cheesecake were the most important pieces of cheese cake. As a rule, they were made on the spot. For example, the famous Leisi Smith made the Eudar Grep Parasmetsa cheese dish and cooker moved by the crank.

The Kuressaare Cheesebodies used the help of the Marienthal Hall of Fame. Only Schlup's company equipment was purchased from Sweden (1909). It is worth noting that it was already possible at the turn of the century to order all dairy equipment and other tools in Kuressaare, because the representative office of Selbsthilfe in Riga was here.

Soon the kind of "creamy layer" of Saaremaa cheese makers developed, whose business went well and grew in popularity among the people. They included Six, Spring, Imhof and Schlup.

Juhan Kuus was a man in Tartumaa, who operated in Lümanda, Pidula and Tiinuse Manor. She was well versed in cheese making. Heuristics and awards have been donated to him for the high quality of cheese, including the Saaremaa VII Agricultural Exhibition Award and silver medal in 1907 and the Viljandi Handicraft Company's Exhibition Award in 1912.

Emil Spring, Switzerland, was the head of the Kingli cheese factory at the turn of the century at the service of Albert Schlup, who had rented it. Subsequently, Spring began itself as the milkman in the surrounding estates and made the cheese on its own. The milk was delivered to Laimjala, Tumala, Audla, Saare, Koigi and Oti Manor. The cheese was also made by Spring in Kangruselja Manor. The quality of its cheese is evidenced by the bronze medal awarded in 1899 at the 4th Baltic Agricultural Exhibition in Riga.
At the Agricultural Exhibition organized in Tallinn in 1901, Spring was made from cheese II place and a small silver medal. Also in the 1904 and 1907 agricultural exhibitions in Saaremaa, Spring cheese was awarded the II Prize.

But the local landlords looked at the successful meer. If he wanted to start a decent dairy industry, they did not give it to the land and the owner of the Kingli Manor refused to renew the lease, making Spring impossible.
It was not until 1910 that he succeeded in renting land from the village of Muka-Puki from Puka village and building a cheesecond that was completed in 1912. The equipment was put up by the famous metalworker Aleksander Espal. The company worked until 1916, when it stopped milk. In the future, the Spring Workshop became Pöide Common Father.

In 1896, the owners of Laugu, Metsküla, Parasmets, Roobaka, Aru and Karja built the Parasmetsa River Crayfish cheese factory. The brothers Adolf, Jakob and Wilhelm Imhof were hired there.
Jakob was the first Cheesemaker of Parasmets, who later became a businessman in Tallinn, where he had a dairy shop in Vana-Posti Street. Wilhelm later became a boarding house in Haapsalu.

Adolf Imhof (1867-1941), however, became a cheesemaker who lived a lifetime, who later took a cheese duck and bought the milk from the surrounding estates. In 1899, his cheese factories started work in Karja and Löönes.
Milk was brought to the River Cheetah (Charlottendahl) cheesecake 40-50 thousand toopi per year. Imhof was awarded the premium quality cheese in 1899. The bronze medal at the Riga show. The same hair was awarded to him in 1904. Kuressaare Agricultural Exhibition and 1907 Baltic Agricultural Exhibition. However, the company remained in the first World War and prepared cheeses for requisites. In 1918, however, it was reopened, now by the German occupation forces. It was ordered to bring milk to all around the cow breeders within three races.

Imhof also leased the Aru manor (173 tessatins, or 189 ha), which held a large dairy farm until the transfer of the manor during the land reform in 1922. Imhofes had cheese dishes in mainland Estonia (Tormas et al.), Who also worked in the 1930s. The Parasmets cheese chamber rented A. Imhof until 1936, but there was very little cheese there.

The second Swiss, especially Albert Schlup (1851-1929), became especially famous. In the 1870s he worked at Torma Manor, and in the next decade he settled in Kuressaare, where he was hired to become the champion of the Kitsa Street manor house cheese factory. Schlup saw that the landlords received great revenues from the sale of his cheese. Using the disagreements and good acquaintances between chefs and shopkeepers, Schlup said on one beautiful day that he could not make cheese from bad milk from manors. As a compromise, she was ready to resume on condition that she bought the milk and chopped the cheese on her own. The conquerors were forced to admit - experienced cheesemakers were not overnight.

As an entrepreneur, Schlup's first step was the creation of a milk shop for cheesecake. 1890 At the end of the day, he bought a Rosenberg house, which was at the end of Pika Street, where he took his company. He also founded a maturation center where the cheese stayed for about a year before marketing. The final production of Schlup's other cheese dishes was also prepared here. At the same time, the cheese was prepared for sale, packed with straw and hops in barrels and sent to Russia through major centers for sale in Riga. In 1900 Schlup sent 1500 cheeses to St. Petersburg, Riga and Tallinn.

During the high period of his activity chefs owned Pihtlas, Tõlliai, Loona, Maas, Pidula, Paadla, Mõntus and Taalikul. He also had at least one cheesecake in Mainland (Helmes) and Belarus (Minsk).
In 1903, Schlup bought the 613 Vein (670 hectares) Pihtla Manor and began to sell the land to peasants. He also took milk from the farmers in the chef's dishes and provided tips for keeping animals and breeding livestock, holding lectures at the farmers' associations.

In 1906 A. Schlup bought 119,000 tomatoes for the production of cheese, of which 24316 tomatoes were from farms. As for industrial equipment, Schlup tried to keep up with the times. For his time, the use of electric lighting, which his center company received from the Wildenberg Leather Factory, was a novel and progressive one.

Thanks to its excellent expertise, the quality of Schlup's cheese was very high. Already for the turn of the century, the company's products received 11 gold and silver medals from many Russian fairs. As seen from the company's invoice, the owner himself considered the most significant rewards for the gold medal in Moscow in 1895 and in 1899. International Diploma of Dairy Exhibitions. Later, the gold medal at the Naples exhibition (1913) and the Vienna and Munich exhibitions awards were featured as a high international recognition. A. Schlup received gold medal in 1907 from Saaremaa agricultural exhibitions and in 1927 a large silver medal.

In addition to the mastery of art, the quality of the cheese made by Schlup was also considered to be the nature of Saaremaa soils and species-rich vegetation, whose composition should be close to the vegetation of the Swiss Alpine grasses. The Swiss cheese produced in Kuressaare was even compared to the original emmental.
Newspaper advertising was written: "The best quality loved Kuressaare cheese is recommended for sale by the Tallinn merchant Paul Meyer."

A. Schlup, as a famous master, practiced in the years 1896-1899 a young dairy scientist, Martin Degree, who in 1920-1922. a. issued a two-part "Teaching of Cheese".

The average profitableness of the Schlup industry at the beginning of the 20th century is thought to be about 40% retroactively. This is a very high result for which both production and sales activities should have been very successful.

As a result of the forced expropriations of the First World War, the manors remained empty of cows, and therefore, in 1915 Schlup's chefs stopped. The Russian market did not fall. The Kuressaare company's equipment was transferred to Pihtlas, where Schlup wanted to build a power plant, but during the German occupation in 1917 equipment was taken. In the wake of the Estonian state, Albert Schlup handed over his manor house and the Pihtla cheese factory's son.
In 1929 Pihtla Manor was completely sold out. The Schlup family ended the manufacture of cheese in Saaremaa in 1932. In the 1940s, Pihtla manor found one of the hideous Schlup bills and some steaks that were unfortunately dispersed.

The location of the famous cheese factory in Kuressaare is still known as the "Schlup Nurgan". In the 1970s, this residential building was built with the address Pikk t. 60
The location of the cheese nursing site remained under the parking lot next to the carriageway and the Tooma shop. 100 years ago, here instead of cars, the coachmen who drove the cheese to the Roomassaare harbor, from which it was shipped by sea, stopped.

In the case of young people in the Republic of Estonia, cheese making was initially prohibited because of lack of primary foodstuffs. When the ban was lifted, some former chefs started chewing at home. It was also promoted by the press.

Chefs were taught by Paul Häesk and Aleksander Kaar at the Farmer's Farm School, but the cheeses were all about to emerge. During this period, there was a high demand for high quality Estonian or foreign markets in foreign markets; It is, however, much easier to prepare than cheese.

However, cheese was prepared in Kirkmann Pädaste Manor, Aleksander Truuväär in Tornimäe, J. Tamberg Pihtlas, Viktor and Mihkel Kuning Võhksas and Villem Vaher Pöidel.
The last-known master cheese also relates to the assassination of Alexander Ellam in a fire with police officers in 1933. In October, stolen cheesecloth fell into a rudder location.

In the early years of the Republic of Estonia, mainly Dutch cheeses were made. Since 1925, Johann Suurpere prepared a bacon cheese in a former dairy cooperative in Kuressaare, Kuressaare.
In 1931, the Tõllus cheese industry belonging to the Jõgeva Seed Plant Corporation began to make a cheese. The cheesemaker was Kristjan Kruusmann. In the middle of the decade, the company was in danger of bankruptcy and rented to the Agricultural Community "Estonia".

In 1939, Saaremaa produced 6.1 tons of cheese, which constituted 2.3% of Estonian cheese production.

During the German occupation, Paul Sillandi rented the cheese making equipment and began to make bacon cheese at Pöide and Valjala dairy. The reminder of the historian B. Pao in Valjala was carried by the Germans in the pits of this cheese even when the battles were already over.

Many intellectuals, including dairy cats, went abroad for warfare abroad. The Saarians are also known as a researcher of dairy farming - as the ethnologist from the Karja Parish, Gustav Ränk, lived in Sweden with a very comprehensive history of cheese making in Sweden, by migrating it to collect material throughout the country.

Cheese production in Saaremaa after World War II has intensified again. When in 1945, 9 tonnes of cheese were produced in the county dairy, then in 1950 already 28 tonnes (Pöidel 13.2, Muhus 7.4, Valjala 6.3 and 1.1 Tones in Tõlliai). Over the next 20 years production has grown twenty times: 1960 - 150 tons, 1970 - 560 tons. Production has stabilized at about this level: from 1980 to 520, 1990 - 500 tons.

When small-scale cheese production in Tõllios was completed in the 1950s, the "three whales" remained - the dairies of Pöide, Muhu and Valjala. Throughout the years, Pöidel has been translated into Latvian, Kostroma, Dutch, and step-by-step, since 1965. Until the dairy stalled in the early 1980s, only lean cheeses were made. The most important chefs in Pöide were Ottomar Ots and Jaan Petersoo.

Muhus was made earlier in Bakstein, Estonian and steppe, but during the last years of its existence, before the closure (1977), only Dutch cheesecake. Alviine Jõgi, Alviine Ling, Õie Tats, Õie Väärtnõu, Aino Mereäär, Aili Truu, Aino Äkke, Tiiu Uisk, Aita Noor and Asta Targem are among the cheese-makers of the year.

In the Soviet era, Valjala was produced by baksten, Latvian, Dutch, Yaroslavl, Estonian, Kostroma, Russian and Tarot cheese. The list of Valjala Cheesemakers is quite long: Feodor Mets, Axel Ots, Alexander Naur, Otto Kaare, Hilja Murd, Helmuth Rasu, Arvi Truu, Arnold Käärid, Helga Pajula and Silvi Kaasik, Aime Tüür.

Duck cheeses were also made at the crustaceans, matured, they were sent to some of the cheeses already mentioned. As the cheese was moldy, the rennet cheese was washed at least once a week with a hand brush. Arthur Steinberg, Vladimir Peegel, and others. built in 1955 a cheesecake combine that was exhibited at the rationalization exhibition in Tallinn.

The Valjala dairy became a cheese-making machine made in 1967 by the repair and mechanical engineering company Progress. The cheese is paraffinically protected against malting. Saaremaa started cheese paraffin paraffin maturation already in 1956, next year H. Rasu built the first electric paraffin. The technological step forward was the aging of cheese under medical vaseline oil, which was introduced in the 1960s. introduced in Valjala and a few years later in Muhu.

In 1974, using a polyethylene-cellophane coating was started on aging using the model of the Valmiera Milk Factory. Meanwhile, cheeses were tested for polyvinyl acetate, but in this case they were still paraffined before they were marketed. The "acre" also came to the aid - for several years, cheeses were covered with Polish paraffin embedded in the sea by the sea.
In 1979, the povideenka was introduced, with which the cheese could also be marketed. It was used for several years in the re-independent Estonia.

After the war, the cheese was prepared in 1,000-2,000-liter mechanical stirrer baths and matured in casual cellars. In 1960, 5000-6000 liters of cheese dishes of Hungarian origin were introduced.
1963 the major rebuilding of the Valjala dairy was completed, which resulted in the ability to increase the annual production from 30-40 tons to 250 in the past. The company was then the largest and most modern in Estonia. The cheese was boiled in new type boilers, salted in containers, and aged on holders. The complex model was exhibited at the National Achievement Exhibition in Moscow.

Production technology was further developed. In 1970, the cheese milk reserve was first introduced in Estonia and cheese pre-press equipment was introduced. Mechanical engineer Hugo Laak built new types of horizontal presses. In 1972, mooring containers were introduced. Thanks to these remedies and the improvement in the quality of the milk, the quality of the cheese increased. When the 1960s 49% of the total amount of the higher-grade cheese was produced in Saaremaa, then by 1975 this figure increased to 93%. During the Soviet era, 30-50 tons of cheese made per year were exported to foreign countries.

After Estonia regained its independence, problems with the marketing of cheese originated at the beginning, but soon sales opportunities expanded and demand grew again. The production of prodecon - frozen cheese cheese was started. Wide-high-quality auxiliary materials were used, including. Saraanki, the cheeses were improved in the commercial appearance. During the expansion of the Valjala cheese industry, in 1996, new cheese making, pressing and bottling equipment was purchased. In 1998, cheeses with square shapes and loose texture were also prepared.

At present, there are three types of islands in the production, Coastrom, Dutch, Arensburg, Town Mayor, Broad and Lime Cheese. Sliced ​​and grated cheese is also made. Recently, the annual production of cheese in Valjala is approaching 1000 tons. Cheese as a low-energy product and a traditional food product will certainly remain among the most important dairy products in Saaremaa.

ARVI TRUU,
Saaremaa Museum "Two-Yearbook 1997-1998"