Pastors were in the century under consideration, and not only, then, undeniably, the most prominent figures in the parish's church and cultural life. In the past years, they have been considered primarily as cultural heroes; however, the position of the Church Teacher's Office has been highlighted and highlighted recently.
In this article, I will try to look at some aspect of the life of a man born in Saaremaa, a craftsman's son, who later became a church teacher, one of the few pastoral pastoralists of local origin among his colleagues. In particular, I try to write about how he learned how he was a teacher in the church, in what circumstances he lived and in what he was remarkable in the history of culture.
Friedrich Reinhold Dreyer served as pastor of the Kärla parish for over a quarter century - 1755-1787. He was born in 1717 in the city of Kuressaare (Arensburg) as the son of Johann Dreyer, a citizen of the city and of saddlebags, but he did not become a young man of the father's office. On June 16, 1740, he was matriculated at the University of Halle as Fridericus Dreyer Arneburg Livonorum.
As an adjutant, it should be noted that other pastors who were active in Saaremaa in that era were educated in the German universities - Jena, Halles and Göttingen. This base later allowed us to learn Estonian. At least part of the entries in the metrics are in Estonian.
One of the important demands of the visitor was that the pastors would continuously develop their knowledge. In this regard, they were asked to list the names of the authors whose books were considered important.
It appears that the pastors were influenced by Christian Wolff's philosophy of Leibniz's student. In the field of dogmatics, the concepts of dogmatics of Halle, professor of theology Siegmund Jakob Baumgarten and Johann Friedrich Stapfer, were mentioned. The last book, "Grundlegung zur wahren Religion", considered Immanuel Kant to be the best for the treatment of Christian dogmatics at all. Johann Ernst Schubert was the author of the choir and the homeland. Pastors have been mentioned most frequently to him and to Baumgarten. In the field of theology, Professor Halle, the name of Johann Salomo Semler, who is considered to be the greatest representative of theological enlightenment in the XVIII century, should also be mentioned. Fredi, the only teacher in the church, has added to his list of authority the names of such antiquities as Livius, Tacitus, Herodotus and Cicero.
Dreyer then occupied 1755 in a deacon in Kuressaare from 10 April 1745 to 3 March. On June 23, 1748, she married Beata Maria von Adlerberg, the daughter of Swedish engineer Erich von Adlerberg. The future Kärla pastor's ward was Virtsu Manor.
In 1755, the Saaremaa Provincial Chancery appointed Dreyer as the teacher of the church in Kärla. The visitation report may be misunderstood as if Dreyer had been the Pastor of Kärla since the year 1745.
When the office was in place, the newly created church record book of the Church of the Kärla Church was created by the soothsayer of the church - births, marriages and deaths, and lists of confederates. Entries in the churchbook made Dreyer a relatively clear and well-handed handwriting by placing them in two columns. Unlike many other pastors, Dreyer entries are numbered and separated from each other by a line.
Dreyer, as a person, is undoubtedly characterized by reports of his relationship with the church, which is, in the majority of cases, linked to conflicts in economic affairs. The origin of such conflicts seems to be the great entrepreneurial spirit of Dreyer, as well as some self-consciousness or even runaway. Due to this fact, he has been preserved at all by documents, which, however, must not automatically draw the conclusion that life was not something else.
One of the characteristics that characterizes church teachers and parishioners is certainly how often the pastor was called to be his child. However, it seems that the troubles in the churches in economic affairs did not stop here. For example, in 1768, Dreyer was called to lead only four children, but in the 1775's already in the 14th and 1781's 19 children. It is possible, of course, that these numbers are of an occasional nature and do not give any tendency in themselves. In the lead list, Dreyer usually did not write off his name, but instead described himself as "Pastor loci" in a non-existent way.
From time to time visits took place in order to get acquainted with the situation of the congregation, both economically and wisely. According to known data, during the Dreyer period, three visits to the Church Council were held in the Kärla congregation - in the years 1768, 1775 and 1781. The first and later often popular impressions of the polls were made by the visitors according to how much the people had gathered for the visitation. The most important criteria that were considered in the evaluation of the church were the reports of how much people visited the church on Sunday, how many visiting visits and how many of the church services were involved.
The Kärla congregation mostly participated in a large number of visits and also generally responded well in the course of the surveillance, although not much people came from the Estonian congregation in the 1781 visitation visit. Whether the reason for concealing a church in a small capacity or anything else remains unclear. At the same visit, it was recognized that the church did not answer the questions well. The head of the Upper Church chose the pastor to his heart to use this catechism so that the peasants would gain more knowledge of Christianity. However, things did not improve significantly by 1794.
This was probably due to the poor health of the Pastor (Seeland) and the illness of the Dreyer, who did not allow enough attention to the congregation.
Pastor's main duties were carrying out worship and church services, catechizing the congregation, setting up a home, chanting for clerks, and patents for the people.
In the catechesis, according to the pastor, the church was held at the end of the worship service on Sundays, after prayer. Dreyer said that catechesis will be conducted through simple questions.
In 1769, Dreyer announced in a letter sent to the consortium of Saaremaa that he reads about his infanticide and other publications in his congregation and enjoys the church on the eve of the day and on the day of the miracle, and thus on the deadlines at the center of the farm calendars. Often there was no special reading, but the peasants were simply caught in every possible occasion. Kärla's 1768 visitation protocol shows that patents were counted on the second Sunday of the church's high holidays (Christmas, Easter and Pentecost).
On September 3, 1770, Governor Browne announced five patents that the church teachers were required to periodically read to the people. They addressed the prevention of the killing of newborns, the abduction of peasants, the prevention of forest fires, restrictions on peasants' weddings, and the prevention of the secret export of vodka from Livonia to Russia's internal conurbations.
In addition to the maintenance of the pastorate and the church building, which is discussed in more detail below, the pastor also became interested in local history. He collected data on both Kärla and the whole of Saaremaa, especially in the 17th and 18th centuries.
During the time of the teacher Martinus Lemchen (Kärla pastor from 1639-1653), the Kärla church and pastor burned down during the time of Christmas, while the archives of the church were destroyed. Thanks to Dreyer's collection work, the new archive, in the opinion of M. Körber, was the richest among all the other church archives in Saaremaa, especially in the case of older notices.
P. von von Frey used quite a lot of Dreyer materials in his three-volume "Osiliana" volume 1 and 2, which has now also entered historic literature through Osiliana. Like the archives of the Church of Kärla, most of Saaremaa's themes depicted the Baltic History writers (P. v. Buxhöwden, Holzmayer, Körber, Luce, etc.) are most frequently referred to in church archives.
Osiliana contains a large number of copies of several archives of the time (Kärla Church Archives, Kuressaare Magistracy Archives, etc.), as well as many other documents. The first volume is almost entirely composed on the basis of Luce's materials; in the first and second volumes, there are many extracts from the archives of the Kärla Church as well as the Kaarma church. The third volume contains transcripts from F. K. Gadebusch's "Livonian Yearbooks". Frey's death left Osiliana unfinished. After his death, the Saaremaa Knights' House bought it, for which Frey's daughter received a certain amount of money each year. Currently, the Osiliana manuscript is preserved in the Estonian Historical Archives.
Dreyer was one of A. W. Hupel's writers. The latter also thanked her in the name of the four pastors of Saaremaa. Hence, Dreyer's data has reached even wider circulation through Hupel.
Dreyer also came up with genealogy. At least one of the letters confirming this claim is located in the Estonian Historical Archives in the Saaremaa Knight Foundation. This letter was sent by Dreyer to Lieutenant-Colonel Lieutenant General Buxhoeveden. This letter contains genealogical messages about the Weimar family, the Berg family and the Buxhoeveden family. Dreyer explains that, in order to receive allegations, he has made a request to both the Riga (Livonia) Knight Archives and the magistrates of Kuressaare (Arensburg). The letter dates back to April 1, 1783.
A significant library (more than 700 volumes), which he inherited from the testament to the church, also testifies to the significant spiritual interests of the Kärla church teacher. There, books were found in a wide range of areas - theology, philosophy, law, medicine, and history. The financial value of the books was estimated at more than 100 rubles, which was a very large amount of time (for comparison: the annual salary of the curator of the 5th grade school in Kuressaare was 88 rubles in the 1780's).
In 1762, the pastor gave the church a graveyard (Leichen Bahre), for the use of which he had to pay 10 kopecks in the church cassette.
In addition to conducting church services, Pastor's important task was to ensure that church buildings were in order. Dreyer has been especially careful about this task, as pastorate buildings and the church building were in perfect condition throughout their term of office, except for some of the demarcation of the boundary line, to which the visitors pointed out.
In the visit to the 1768 pastor, the pastor said that he himself built the building and was the owner of the dairy chamber, a new garden, a chariot, a stone, a yard, a chalet (facing the pavilion), a cheese chamber and a sausage garden. Between the sauna and the mansion (Gehöft), he dug two fishponds connected to the ditch.
In 1775, it was written that the pastor had made a house with a dining room and patio (for example, Herberge - here in the sense of the guesthouse), in which the charm was found for the kitchen. The pastoral pastor, with his expense and letters, was able to build horse, chariot and two small animals for lawns. In addition to the cell built 12 years ago, the pastor also built a new reheater.
The construction of the guesthouse cost the pastor 32 rubles. The big garden where hops were grown (more than 2000 rows were in use) and fruit trees, as well as two fishponds, went to the pastor to cost almost 100 rubles. 1775 It was noted that he was succeeding them with the will of the church. Although such individual reports do not allow a review of the financial situation of Dreyer, it is clear that the Kärla church teacher was materially well-off.
Of course, all of the above listed buildings needed building material - wood. However, it was the easiest thing to worry about in the pastorate and the nearby forests. It was precisely on this surface that a trouble arose that forced the church chief, von Ekesparret and the rottmasters to visit the visit of 1775, to instruct the bishop of the bishop to issue a rule (Verordnung), which would henceforth prohibit the fall of trees from the pastorate hemisphere (Tannen-Busch) and Leppik's copper tree.
The mentioned forests protected the Kärla country house and the pastorate lands from the sandstone. The removal of trees was seen as a major threat to the fields. The visitation committee issued a regulation forbidding these trees from further cutting down the trees. The head of the church had to follow the rules. The pastor used most of the trees to build pastorate buildings, while part of it had given the pastor's house to the Hindrichule house. The peasant had received 50 logos. The protocol of 1781 shows that 390 logs were taken from the sixth forests of the pastorate, 40 of which were Leppiko's copper.
Thus, nearly four and a half trees were taken away, which probably did not leave the peasants and landlords indifferent, especially since the problem of stinging gum was haunted by Kärla before. M. Körber writes that the storms that struck at the beginning of the 18th century were fields, livestock and meadows covered with sandstone, and thus, in the entire parish, 30 Swedish swamps (schwedische Landhaken) were damaged. Many high sand dunes come from this time. Also, part of the Kärla pastorate itself was covered with sandwiches and therefore unusable.
In the visit to the 1775 church, the whole congregation arranged that the church building was too small and can not accommodate one third of the congregation. Therefore, it was highly regarded that the rule was to be built on the southern side of the church).
The visitation commission ordered an extension. For his part, the church chief requested permission to build a cream for his family and promised the church to pay 5 rubles for it. In addition, two pans belonging to Kandla Manor had to be surrendered to the church. Unfortunately, everything did not go the way it was intended, and again there was a reason to fight.
During the visit of 1781, members of the German congregation complained that the pastor, without the permission of the church convent, ordered the building to be erected on the south side of the church building (Vor-Haus) and painted the chancellery and all the benches. The house had benches and roofs covered with roof tiles, the door was equipped with two iron hinges, a block block and an iron ring. At the same time, however, there was a repair in the area of the lack of rest in the northern part of the church building. The pastor replied that he had been a leading presenter, but he paid the money so much and promised to refuse his nose to repair the church building in the future. He also asked him to pay 22 rubles and 40 kopecks to cover the cost of repairs. The German congregation, of course, protested against the issuance of such a sum, justifying its decision by the fact that the pastor had been abusing the painting, although the head of the church, Major von Ekesparre, had been in office during his previous visitation. The absence of a leader was not only a problem with Kärla. Holy Teacher K. Fr. Papperitz wrote to the consistory, among other things, that he did not have a presidential candidate for three years.
The visitation committee issued two orders. The first of them forbade the pastor to deal with the repair of a church building and pastorate. At the same time, the issue of improving the place of desertification was made to entrust the chairman and the church congregation. The second rule provided for the construction of a rule building on the western side of the church building: was this one also built, there is no data here.
The church leader, in turn, announced that he would renounce the construction of the choir in the governorate, as such an action could be hindered by the rule of the church built on the southern side of the church. It is not known exactly when this horde was finished, but the fermentation between the pastor and the German congregation has given new impetus to the wrap hanging record.
In particular, Dreyer, in March 1780, was hanging on the wall of the Adlerbergs garter church in memory of his hidebone. This led to the protest of the knight, because Adlerbergs did not belong to the knight of Saaremaa. The visit committee commissioned the pastor to take off and take away the blame for half a year. So it was done. The wreath was first sent to the Hanila Church in Läänemaa, and later to Livonia. More precisely, the lack of data can not be said.
In 1781, the farmers of Sõmera complained that the dam of the water mill built by Pastor Dreyer had broken down the sandstone that led the village of Sõmera to the church. The Chief Executive Officer promised to consider the issue as a problem and found that the petition of Sõmera was well-founded.
The great entrepreneurship of pastoral management and self-awareness in the performance of official services brought ever more new complaints against Dreyer to the Saaremaa Consistory.
In the provincial quarterly J.A. Aghe's accusation of 1780-81, it appears that Dreyer refused to take two Kärla Crown Prince peasants, Ulja Ristiani and Jaga Lenarti. The reason was that Dreyer had flooded the meadows of their peasants with their watermill, and the peasants had rightly dug it. How such an action is suited to the eagerness of the church teacher is already a matter of fact. Recurring complaints about the Dreyer Watermill show that it was one of the most burning problems in the parish at that time.
It was not, however, the only time Dreyer refused to take people to the chapel. Between 1772 and 1774, Kärla Chancellor O. H. von Buxhoeveden compiled a complete questionnaire and allowed the people from different social groups to answer them. As a result of this work, the 178-page folder was blamed for accusations against Dreyer in professional mistakes, which would be the continuation of the material for an independent article.
In a series of complaints, landlords and peasants complained that they have not been able to go to church for a long time. For example, in October 1773, 18 people complained that they last went to church on Christmas Eve a year ago, in spring, and so on. Someone Lehn complained that the pastor had taken her for more than two years to her christening because she could not afford to pay a fine for rubbish money due to poverty. One swindler said that he had not received 8 years of communion, even though fines have been paid. Pastor refusing to take her to the chapel, basing her on her praise. It seems that at least in some cases it was the pastoral nature of the personal nature of the ionization.
The above example shows that the church itself did not once have to go to the communion hallway once a year, although the evidence suggests that there were about two times per year attending the church attendance at an adult church, which can be considered normal.
In 1775, the leader complained about Dreyer. The pastor was summoned to Major von Haack's deathbed in the death camp, but despite the fact that the church teacher was currently in Kärla's Crown Witch, and the Majority's husband urged him to do so, Dreyer did not visit the Surgeon, but apologized for another deed.
In 1781, Dreyer was accused of having illegally married PF von Buhrmeister and C. von von Weimarr - namely, the pastor had put his sisters and brothers apart in the Käesla manor without having to declare three times without the Chancellor.
The consistory imposed a fine on the pastor.
Thus, it is safe to say, on the basis of the examples given, that Dreyer's penetration with the congregation was not just a better chunk, and the culprits were essentially pastoral personal perceptions here, often incompatible with the congregation.
F. R. Dreyer, a long-time savior of the Kärla parish, died in a pastorate on April 17, 1787, at the age of 70 years. He left a church with a well-maintained church, a well-preserved church building and a pastorate in the spiritual worship.
In sum, it must be said that Dreyer was a highly influential and diverse interest in a person who was perhaps not of the same value as a cultural artist such as Frey, Luce or Körber, but who has a definite place in the cultural history of Saaremaa and Estonia. Until now, he has been unprotected as a major shadow.
Two-year book of the Saaremaa Museum 1995 - 1996