The farmhouse and the farm family were the economic unit of ancient Estonian society. The villages were concentrated in the village, the parish was a village association. Saare County included the parish of Kaarma (Carmele), Kihelkonna (Kiligunde), Muhu (Mone), Pöide (Horele), Sõrve (Sworve) and Valjala (Waldele) parishes. The god of the saarites was Tarapita, and the earth was ruled.

 

The ancient war of freedom of the Saarids ended in 1227 with the conquering of Valjala's country, but the surrender was stipulated by an agreement that left the islanders a part of the power. Six years later, the conquerors began to share our land. Bishop Albert of Livonia became Valjala, Pöide and Muhu went to the order, Kaarma and Sõrve remained in the city of Riga. The parish was divided into three: 200 plagues to the bishop, 100 orders, and another to 100 rias.

 

In 1234, a new local authority emerged in the form of a bishopric of the Livonian Bishop in the form of the Bishop of Saare-Lään (Albert's brother Hermann), and later he also grabbed the lands of Riga. Hiiumaa was divided between the Order (Pühalepa) and the Bishop (Käina). The bishop also had possessions in Courland. The first objective of foreign power was to destroy the spirit of the Vikings. The aristocracy was given to Kuressaare Bishops' Castle (Arensburg) and the Order of Maas (Soneburg).

 

The important points of power were the Christian churches. They were built in parish centers, located in the vicinity of the picturesque towns. It is possible that the churches were built on the initiative of the local authorities (the islands). From the ancient tribes the church chapels (parochial gardens) were doubled, their number doubled: Sõrve was divided into Anseküla and Jämaja, Jaani, Karja, Kärla, Mustjala and Holy ones were added.The thirteenth parish came to the island of Ruhnu to Saare County in 1713.

 

When the bumps rose to the water, the border of the Kaarma and Sõrve parishes came from the Nasva River, but from the 16th century Kaarma and Anseküla border.

 

New administrative units were created. The office was a medieval economic entity that managed the unrestrained lands and generally operated in a single parish. The office was divided into vacancies, which included villages located in close proximity. Vakus had a tax unit.

 

The landing of a private property (westernization) began about a century after the end of the ancient liberation struggle. The ghosts left the manor named Schultzenhoff. The heart of this manor was located on the left bank of the River Põduste quite by the sea, according to the current signs in the county hospital. The Babbish River was an ancient waterway connecting the Kaarma Parish Center with the sea.

 

During the Livonian War, Saaremaa was sold to Denmark. The new municipality became the city of Kuressaare, which was created under the city law in 1563. The city also formed a separate church branch, which separated from the city of Kaarma.

 

At the end of the Danish period, Heimart von Nolcken acquired the Schultzenhof manor and developed the name in Estonian called Nolgimõis. At the time of Sweden, Nolgimõis went to the county of Kuressaare, which was soon liquidated and therefore the Nolgimõis was converted to state fortune. Heimart von Nolcken became the lessee of the state house. One of the pieces of Nolgimõisa was the birth of the Mullutu Private Mansion, which was the true son of Nolcken.

 

At the time of Sweden, Saaremaa was a self-governing municipality, the status of which was passed through the various national authorities to the local knighthood. Indeed, in Saaremaa, the features of statehood were already in ancient times. In the Northern War, both the Estonian and the Livonian lands went to the Russian tsar. Saaremaa was, however, in the draft Uusikaupunki Peace Treaty but left to Sweden, but during the course of negotiations it became the province of the Russian central government. In 1765, Saaremaa was merged again with Livonia and instead of St. Petersburg, the county began to dominate the city of Riga.

 

The birth of the Eudhus Nasva village was the year of 1783-97, when the Sõrve postal route over the Nasva shrinks and major land improvement works were carried out here (Kurgu kanal, Kalaka River, Vägara stream, Pühajõgi). On the crossroad of Sõrve post-roads and the intersection of the Nasva River around the taverns, a separate settlement emerged from Mändjala.

 

The Nolgimõis was liquidated in 1798, its possessions were merged with the Kaarma-Suurmõisa. The main tenant of Kaarma-Suuremõisa was the Nolcken family.

 

The Mullutu Manor was sold by Reinhold Friedrich von Nolcken to the 1799 secretary adviser Carl Magnus von Osten-Sacken, who next year made a statement to Matic Advisor Mattias von Buxhoeveden.

 

The Livonian Taliban Military Act has legalized the municipality as a new form of peasant community. The boundaries of the municipality usually coincided with the boundaries of the manor, and the areas of activity of the municipality (peasant court, boarding school, poor welfare, school, etc.) remained under the custody of the manor. Creation of parishes began in Saaremaa in 1820, manor courts continued until 1890.

 

The Municipalities Act of the Baltic States (1866) transformed communes into state administrative units and raised the part of the peasants in organizing their activities. The Baltic Municipal Court of Cassation (1889) continued the same direction.

 

Nasva was the border town of Anseküla and Kaarma parish, also the border of the Kärla parish was Nasvalt just a few steps away. The village of Nasva combined households from the Mullutu, Kaarma-Suuremõisa, Kellamäe, Abruka and Paadla estates, Kuressaare churches and towns. The church was visited in the city (both in the Lutheran and Orthodox churches), Anseküla, Kaarmal, Kiral, Mõnnuste or Tiirimetsas.

 

In 1891, weakened municipalities connected to the mansions were connected to larger and stronger ones. The weekly newspaper Olevik writes in the 23rd issue of 1892 as follows:

 

"The walls of Saaremaa have been united during the year, namely: 3) Kärla wallaks, Kärla kirikwald, Oriküla, Kudjapä, Mõnuste, Kandla, Paadla, Kaarmise ja Mullutu wallsad. 13) Elme, Kaarma, Kaarma kirikuwald, Loona, Meedla, Eiküla and Piila wallad Loona wallaks. 14) Suure-Kaarma, Randwere, Kellamäe, Pähkla, Muratsi, Praakli and Tahula wallad Suure-Kaarma wallaks. 15) Lõalala, Tiirimetsa, Tiinuse, Anseküla kirikuwald, Leo, Abruku and Kalduslain walls were one of the walls of Abruk. So the 19 big walds from our former 114 weighted wall were received. "

 

The new Abruka municipality covered almost entirely the Anseküla parish and covered the outskirts of Kihelkonna and Kärla parishes. The part of the Nasva village in Järve, Keskranna and Mändjala village and Nasva River, which was connected to Sõrve, was merged with the Kaarma-Suure rural municipality (this statement was apparently the effect of the manor - these lands belonged primarily to Kaarma-Suuremõisa). The Abruka Municipality House was built on Salme Village, where the heart of the Abruka Manor was located (that this state fort was created primarily for horse breeding, the manor house was limited in the old days to the manor and rural municipality government).

 

Kaarma Kandi rural municipalities joined the Loona municipality, Kaarma-Suu rural municipality became the town of Kuressaare. Kaarma-Suumaa became the manor according to the manor whose heart was behind the Ruubi Rat (along the Orissaare road) (the Kingissepa EPT, the Soviet-era).The forerunner of this manor was the St. Suuremõis, which was liquidated during the land survey in 1798 and was replaced by one of the largest state ruins of Saaremaa. Both the names of Saint-Suuremõisa and Kaarma-Suuremõisa were named after the parish. The most promising double stone castle house in Saaremaa was built from 1895-96 to Landrati (now Pärna) street 1, which was presented by Suuremõisa, with a total cost of 18,000 rubles.

 

The Mullutu Manor Manor of the Kaarma Parish was annexed to Kärla Municipality in 1891. In this, the central part of the village of Nasva went to Kärla, the administrative fragmentation of the village was further aggravated. The first farmsteads belonging to the city belonged to Kaarma-Suure estate, the village's heart remained on the estate of Kärla, but over again the bridge was Kaarma-Suure parish. The village continued to split the boundaries of parishes, estates and estates passing along the river. The head of each Nasva family was their destination for church and church practice. For example, my ancestors had to go to Kärla Rural House and Kaarma Church, with half a day tea on both sides.

 

Mändjala's administrative status was not easier either. The big fords of Tiidrek and Jürn were officially joined to the village of Sõmera (!), Along with their freedoms, besides, in Mändjala, four freemen were in the village of Upa. The newspaper Saarlane brought a good example on 21.10.1909:

 

"The boundaries of Upa village and Mändjala men coincide in Mändjala. Because of the right to fishing, there is a sense of separation. The 16 men of the Upa village gave two Haapsalu men the license to fish in their own sea, which, however, the men of Mändjala read for themselves and complained that the Haapsalu men were in court for their own fishing. "

 

The villages of Sõmera and Upa belonged to Kaarma-Suuremõisa, but in Mändjala, there were nine parcels in the manor. The same administrative fragmentation took place in Keskranna and Järve.

In 1891, the following villages belonged to Kaarma-Suu Province: Anijala, Ansi, Iras, Järve-Keskranna, Kellamäe, Kirā, Kärdä, ​​Laadjala, Lilbi, Mändjala, Nasva City and Sõrve-end, Paimala, Pähkla, Pärnu, Saia, Sepa, Tahula, Tõll, Uduvere, Upa and Vaivere. The largest village of the rural municipality was Vaivere.

 

The next step in the administrative bureaucracy of the Tsarist regime was the Russian-language villagers installed in 1900, the reading of which became a joke.

 

1908 The Kaarma-Suure Municipality Consumer Goods Association was founded, this one branch store was opened in Nasval.

 

Kaarma-Big rural municipality had problems not only with the maintenance of its large municipality house. The newspaper Saarlane illuminated the matter on April 25, 1909:

 

"The boundaries of Kaarma-Suurewalla are wide and several places are much closer to other wall-houses, such as the Middle Alder near the Abruka Rural House, near the Sõmera Kärla Rural House, the Swedes in the vicinity of Pihtla wallamaja, etc.

 

In the same way, the difficulty is that Kaarma-Suurewall is the division and introduction of the taxes of 10 churches. "

 

On June 1, 1909, the council decided to offer parts of the municipality to other municipalities, but the Kärla parish did not accept this proposal.However, in October 1909 it was decided not to divide it. Apparently, this problem was very important, since at the end of October all new officials were elected to the municipality government and to the court.

 

1917 The power created by the February Revolution merged the Estonian-speaking part of Livonia with Estonia, which is why the rule of Saaremaa passed from Riga to the capital of Estonia in the capital of Tallinn. This was accompanied by an increase in the share of Estonian. The newspaper Saaremaa wrote on March 18, 1917:

 

"The Governor of Estonia J. Poska has sent a circular to all the wallpapers, after which you could wallow your things in Estonian."

 

The German occupation power conquered by Saaremaa in the same autumn, which lasted for 13 months and 24 days, brought with it an unprecedented number of orders and orders. The province was formed on the islands of western Estonia, its office was in Kuressaare Province 14 (now Tallinn 19). A new calendar was introduced (February 1918 was shorter by 12 days, the month began on February 13). The village of Nasva was merged with Kaarma-Suure rural municipality, a school was introduced to the village and allowed to establish a fishermen's community.

 

However, the advent of the Republic of Estonia, however, ended this fun and restored the tsarist administrative division (incl. The newly formed fishermen's community was liquidated and the school was brought back from Nasvo Mändjala). To clarify the situation, 36 villagers who belonged to the Kärla municipality submitted a prayer letter to the Saare County Government on March 26, The newspaper Saaremaa illuminated this problem 04.06.1924:

 

"The Naswa neighborhood, which is located far apart and apart from other wall parts, is still part of the Kärla walla. A similar isolated position has given birth to many people in the Naswa population, among other things, due to the fact that they have been able to fix the set teeth far far, near the village of Sauwere. "

 

On January 21, 1924, the Minister of the Interior wrote to the decree amending the boundaries of Kärla and Kaarma-Suure rural municipality, which was separated from the Kärla parish, which was located in the village of Nasva, which was formerly Mullutu Manor, and was rejoined from 1 January 1925 to Kaarma-Su Municipality.

 

Near Kuressaare town, behind the former palisade, farmers, sailors (Badstübler), fishermen and others lived. city ​​craftsmen. The larger settlements were Põllu hill and Tori village.

At the Kuressaare City Council session on June 14, 1921, the idea of ​​merging the town with Suurlaht and the city border along the Kurgu Canal along the Nasva River to the sea was launched. This was justified by the need to maintain the Great Lakes for health through the Nasva River.

 

At the extraordinary session of the City Council on May 11, 1926, the new border was unilaterally established. It was decided that the city would take over Põllu and Tori only if Nasva village was given to the city. This is known to be the most serious attempt to eradicate the village of Nasva.

 

Because the thing was also political passions, the article published in Saaremaa on 29 May 1926 shows:

 

"On Thursday night (May 27th), more than 150 house owners arrived from Naswalt and Põllualew on the thirteenth session of the upper secondary school of the Kaarma-Suure walla high school. A description was made of the advantages and disadvantages of the inhabitants on the walla and what cities by joining

 

The Member of the Riigikogu, Mr Teetsow, unequivocally explained in an extended speech the benefits of staying to the wall and reaching out to the congregation. Mr Teetsow said that it would not be beneficial for the farmers in the town of Kuressaare to acquire new land for the people of Rahwä, Põllualew and Naswa villages; it is more useful in the national sense that the land of Suuremõisa on the land of the same manor will be distributed to the inhabitants of the Põllualew inhabitants by the state without the city's witch service. When asked who has the will to stay on the walla and get out of the country, all went to the heat. "

 

The city government, however, organized a vote among the residents among the residents in order to find out in real terms the wishes of joining the city. The newspaper Saarlane writes about it on June 9, 1926:

 

"Voting ballot boxes were sent to 214. The vote was 177, thus 83 per cent. The city was given 145 votes, with a thunder of 31."

 

The will of Nasva inhabitants differed from that of the inhabitants of Põllu. June 15, 1926, a letter was sent to the Minister of the Interior, which expressed dissatisfaction with the unanimous decision of the city authorities of 11 May. As a result, the border of the city and the Nasva bordered the old place, the line of the Cross of the Cross or the Laid Mountain.

 

It should be added in this connection that the cohesion of the Nasva village community also arose with the liquidation of the estates a few years ago and the elimination of church communities in the same year (07/01/1926).

 

The Nasva River was divided halfway between the Mullutu and Suuremõisa Cossacks in the tsarist era. At the beginning of Estonia, the river also belonged to two hosts (the Ministry of Agriculture and the Saaremaa County Government) until it was registered with the Nasva Fishermen Association in a land reform.

 

The following villages belonged to the Kaarma-Suur estate: Abruka, Anijala, Ansi, Iras, Järve-Keskranna, Kiratse, Kärdä, ​​Laadjala, Lahe, Lilbi, Mändjala, Nasva, Paimala, Pähkla, Pärnu, Saia, Sepa, Tahula, Tõlli, Uduvere, Unimäe, Upa and Vaivere. The village of Nasva became the largest village in the rural municipality.

 

Põllu hill and Tori village were merged with the city in 1929, the bishop's castle in 1934.

 

Abruka municipality was named Salmu parish in 1936. The village on the island of Abruka was separated from Salme municipality in 1919 and merged with Kaarma-Suure rural municipality (in fact it was a decision taken by the German occupation authorities in 1918, approved by the county government in 1919). The Järve-Keskranna village was merged with Salme municipality in 1938.

 

The change of the name of the Kaarma-Suure rural municipality was put on the agenda in 1938 in connection with the reform of the municipalities.Several proposals were received from the members of the rural municipality council (for example Randla parish, Nurme municipality), but the Kuressaare municipality was proposed by state officials. The Kuressaare Municipality, established in 1939, was mainly made up of the former Kaarma-Suure rural municipality, to which parts of the municipality of Loona and Pihtla were added. During the same reform, Loona Parish was renamed to Kaarma municipality, which in turn included the parts of the former Mustjala municipality.

 

During the German occupation from 1941 to 1943, Saaremaa, together with Läänemaa, was the seat of the General Commissariat of Tallinn in the composition of the Kuressaare Regional Commissariat (Gebietskomissariat). This municipality recalled the medieval princely states created by bishop Albert in 1234.

 

The Kuressaare parish lasted for ten years with four state authorities (the Republic of Estonia, the Estonian SSR, the German occupation, and again the Estonian SSR). The village councils were established in 1945. No elections were organized, officials were appointed, their main task was to control the execution of party commands.

 

Kuressaare, Randvere and Tahula village councils were formed in Kuressaare rural municipality. The villages of Kuressaare County Kuressaare were Nasva, Mändjala, Lahe, Unimäe, Praakli, Kudjapäe, Kasti and Muratsi villages.

 

In Kaarma rural municipality, 3 (Aste, Eikla, Kaarma), Salme municipality 2 (Anseküla, Tiirimetsa) village council were formed. Altogether, 42 village councils were established in Saaremaa, with a total of 637 in Estonia.

 

Regulation of the Council of Ministers of the Estonian SSR dated 26.10.1946 No. 58 the Saaremaa County received a closed border line of the USSR, for which a written permission (propusk) was required for departure.

 

In the same 1946, Hiiu County was established where the same border regime was in place.

 

1950 counties and municipalities were liquidated. Saaremaa was divided into Kuressaare and Orissaare divisions, Ruhnu Island was given to Pärnu.

 

The city of Kuressaare was named the Kingissepp City in 1952 and the Kuressaare District in Kingissepp District. In the same same year, the Pärnu Region was formed, which, however, was abolished after Stalin's death.

 

By decision of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Estonian SSR on June 17, 1954, the number of village councils was reduced by half. 11 of the 24th village council of Kingissepp District remained: Kaali, Kaarma, Kihelkonna, Kuressaare, Kärla, Lümanda, Mustjala, Pihtla, Salme, Torga and Võhma.

 

The Salme village council was formed when the village council of Anseküla, Koimla and Tiirimetsa was joined. The Randvere and Tahula Village Council were joined to the Kuressaare Village Council and the Village Council of Asta and Eikla with the Kaarma Village Council. With this, the former borders of Kuressaare and Kaarma municipality were restored.

 

I was born in 1949 in the Kuressaare Village Council of Saare County, Kuressaare. Between 1950 and 1952 I lived in the Kuressaare Village Council of Kuressaare District, in Kuressaare Village Council in 1952-53 in the Kingissepa District of Pärnu Region, and from 1953 in the Kuressaare Village Council of Kingissepp District. In fact, I lived with my parents all the time in the same place along the Nasva River. In 1956, I began studying at the Viktor Kingissepp High School in Kingissepp District, Kingissepp. There were 1,200 students in this school, studied both in Estonian and in Russian.

 

The Orissaare district was merged with the Kingissepp District in 1959. In 1960, 10 village councils were liquidated in Saaremaa. The premises of Salme Village Council were divided between Kuressaare, Lümanda and Torga Village Council. The Kuressaare Village Council was founded in 1960 in the surroundings of Salme, in 1963 it was part of the Kärla Village Council and in 1966 there was a whole Sõrve burial ground in Salme.

 

Torgu Village Council was named Salme Village Council in 1972, while the southern corner of the village council of Lümanda was joined to the west side of the village council of Kuressaare.

 

The hamlet as a municipality was created during the reform of the settlements in 1975-76, while the number of villages was significantly reduced.There were 256 villages and 7 small towns in Saaremaa 528 villages.

 

Thus, Kellamäe village was merged into Unimäe and Lahe village; however, the village name was taken slightly in the neighboring village (which was divided between Iras and Randvere, so that there would be no double villagers in one of them). Randvere village was joined to the villages of Koidu, Põllu, Pärnu, Randvere, Tamsalu, Tõll and Viira and part of Kellamäe village.

 

The creation of the Kuressaare village through the renaming of the Kudjape settlement was also unclear. We made mistakes elsewhere, they were confirmed by the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Estonian SSR dated 25.02.1977.

 

The Kaarma village council was merged with Kuressaare Village Council in 1976, which became quite a municipality similar to the Kaarma parish. It was composed of the Aste hamlets and Abruka, Anijala, Ansi, Asuküla, Aula, Eikla, Endla, Haam, Hakkala, Iras, Kaarma, Kaarmise, Kaisvere, Kasti, Kellamäe, Kiratsi, Kuressaare, Kärdu, Laadjala, Loona, Meedla, Mullutu, Muratsi, Mändjala, Nasva, Piila, Pähkla, Randvere, Saia, Sikassaare, Tahula, Tõrise, Uduvere, Upa, Vaivere and Vätta.

 

There were three nature reserves in the village council: Abruka salumets, Linnulaht and Northwest Oak.

 

The villages of the village council of Kuressaare mostly belonged to the Lenin-i. Kolkhoz, except for Nasva and Abruka (belonging to the Kolkhoz of Saar Kalur), Mändjala and Kellamäe (belonged to the Kuressaare Forest District of Saaremaa Forest Garden) and Aste Small Town (famous for the Tallinn Experimental Juveelite Factory Stage).

 

In 1986, Ruhnu was considered a part of the Kingissepp district of Pärnu district (it was handed over to the Kalvarian collective farm, which was then at the top of its wealth).

 

The name of the city of Kuressaare was restored on the jubilee day of 1988, and in the city hall again, the blue flag was flushed again.

 

In 1989 Kaarma village council was restored, which was formed by 19 Kuressaare Village Council's eastern village (in essence Kaarma rural municipality was restored).

 

The first officially restored municipality in Estonia was Muhu, it was born in 1990. The city of Kuressaare, which became the first city in Estonia in the same 1990, became the municipality of Kuressaare. The Kingissepp district was also re-established in Saare County in 1990.

 

The village names were restored in 1991, there were 491 villages in Saaremaa.

 

Kuressaare Village Council was transformed into Kuressaare municipality in 1992.

 

In 1999, the Kaarma and Kuressaare parishes were merged, the parish of Kaarma got together again.

 

 

 

KALLE KESKÜLA