On October 15, 1997, 375 years elapsed since the birth of one of the most prominent figures in the Swedish great power, the statesman, the power and wealth of the nobility, the well-educated and wide-eyed forge Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie. Among other things, the same man wore the title of Count of Kuressaare. When he was valued very differently as a statesman, the rest of the opinions have been unanimously positive. He was already linked to Estonia and Livonia through his father and grandfather, and even more so thanks to his own possessions and his active activities in the Baltic Sea. Working in the field of construction and architecture has brought his name to the history of Estonian art. Magnus Gabriel's best architects at the time of the customs were planning his palaces in Sweden and Estonia. The palaces, of which the Count dreamed and partly realized his dreams, have been compared with similar structures in Italy and France.
The de la Gardie, the proper d'Escoperie family, comes from Languedoc in southern France. Pontus De la Gardie, who entered the service of the King of Sweden in 1565, lacked any aristocratic background, although for almost three hundred years it was deeply convinced in Sweden. His father, the energetic merchant of Caune's town, had made good money and gained many new possessions, including La Gardie's herd. His earthly way ended up as a merchant-wise man, who, according to the practices of southern France, could also be seen as nobleman.
Born in the 1520s, Ponce Scoperier first studied at a monastery, soon abandoned his spiritual career and entered the army, picking up a new name for Pontus De la Gardie. He worked in many parts of Europe on the war-tandre (and there was no shortage of wars at that time), and he entered the service of Swedish King Erik XIV, a European-oriented prisoner, who received the Frenchman's two hands. In 1571 he was awarded a freelance title, in 1580. he married Sofia Gyllenhielm, the daughter of King John III.
In 1574, Pontus De la Gardie became the Deputy Governor of Livonia and in 1580-1583 he led Swedish troops in the Livonian War. In the latter, he showed himself to be a successful and wise warrior, conquering Narva, securing much of Estonia with this victory and also preparing for subjugation of Ingermanland. All these steps were the foundation stones of the Swedish great power.
In 1585, during the peace talks with the Russians, Pontus De la Gardie sank into the Narva River. She is buried in Tallinn Cathedral.
Three small, already motherless children were left from Pontus, the youngest of whom, Jakob, was born in 15883 in Tallinn. Already at the beginning of the 1600s, having barely reached the age of adulthood, Jakob De la Gardie proved himself as a successful successor to his father in the war against Poland.
In 1610, at the head of Swedish troops, he invaded Moscow, and a little later Novgorod, fought vigorously for Gustav Adolf's brother Karl Filip to be declared the Russian Tsar.
In 1617, he signed the Stolbovo Peace Treaty as a Swedish representative, joining Sweden and the Ingermanland to Laadogan.
Another contribution by De la Gardie to securing the country's superpower was paid generously to Jakob: in 1615 he became Lieutenant Count, in 1619-1622 he was Governor of Estonia and Deputy Governor of Tallinn, 1622-1630 Lieutenant General of Livonia and Chairman of the Swedish Military College since 1630.
From 1628, he devoted himself to rule, working for years with legendary chancellor Axel Oxenstern, and as a member of Queen Kristiina's Guardian Government. He did not play a major political role in the latter, but his social position was more undeniable. Successfully managing his mansion and pursuing an effective commercial business, he was one of Sweden's most representative figures of his time.
Family life flourished as well: on Jan. 1618, Jakob married the beautiful and rich Ebba Brahra, a native craze, who had been the young generation of King Gustav Adolf himself. The family had 14 children, of whom only 7 were able to become adults.
Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie was born on October 15, 1622 in Tallinn. After a few years in Riga, the family soon returned to Sweden, where his father Jakob was appointed to be responsible for army command and armament. Jakob De la Gardie was at the top of his career and was therefore almost absent at home. The management of numerous manor houses, along with all of them, and bringing up the children were on the mother's Ebba's shoulder, who was able to do all this well.
Magnus Gabriel's education began in Riga, where private teachers shared primary wisdom from Christianity, Latin, French and German. In his homeland, he became a partner of his later King Karl X Gustav. On 30 July 1634, the young Magnus Gabriel performed his first public speech dedicated to King Gustav II Adolf's memory. The speech was in Latin, the speaker was only 12 years old. Next year, the young man began his studies at Uppsala University, where he began his studies in 1635. May held his next big speech, this time in the history of the university, explaining the importance of his studies to young noblemen in terms of patriotism and moral improvement. In summary, the content of the speech was "to live among the taught is the highest life". Four years later, Magnus Gabriel was named rector illustrator of the same university . Although it was largely honorary, it took it seriously, taking part in all the meetings of the consistory, taking part in discussions, making suggestions, and so on.
1640 at the end of the year, Magnus Gabriel headed for the overseas necessity for a young nobleman. Domestic education was considered sufficient for a modest career in clerical or official careers, but not more. Those who wanted to go further had to grind at the universities both internally and externally. The first stop was Leiden in the Netherlands, where the main subjects were root, state and social sciences and mathematics (the latter was particularly important for a future warrior). Sufficient attention was devoted to speech art and physical exercise (fencing, dance, various military exercises).
In Amsterdam, at that time in a European shopping center, he made himself aware of traffic conditions, communications, trade, finance and navigation. The latter was not of little importance to Sweden as a maritime country. And of course, the young Swedish nobleman was presented in the high homes of Europe, including the Royal Palace of France. By that time, education and education had had their full effect: the young man was ,mindy, educated, fluent in foreign languages, familiar with local customs and customs, able to behave and talk to both educated men and representatives of power. She had already come along with her beautiful appearance. It all meant social success, which did not come. Before going on a trip to Italy, he still visited South France, Languedoc, to look at the roots of his family.
However, the planned trip of a young man of artistic and architectural interest to the Baroque cradle in Italy remained unanswered, as a message came out of the war between Denmark and Sweden. 21-year-old Magnus Gabriel rushed back to Europe back home for four years.
Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie, a young and beautiful, educated and European man who came home from France, soon became a close friend of Queen Kristiina, who decided to sow her gifts. His nearly four decades of political career began, with the first thirteen going uphill.
Considering himself to be a warrior himself, Magnus Gabriel wanted to become a descendant of his father and grandfather. If his contribution in this area was much smaller than that of his own, he played a greater role in the central government, and in particular in court. It can also be used to explain all the gifts that the queen shared not only as the West, but also as a variety of privileges and licenses as money, valuable gifts, and high-income state agencies. So he became a state councilor at the age of twenty-four (1647). In the same year, she married Princess Maria Eufrosyn, the sister of the future King Charles X Gustav.
The five-day grand costume of the wedding was carried by the queen personally. In 1648 he was appointed general in Germany. In 1649-1652, he was the governor general of Livonia, but aside from the queen of the king, he was also discouraged by his favor, and in 1650 he rushed back to Stockholm to take part in Kristiina's coronation rallies. Among others, representatives of the Saaremaa nobility arrived there: Matthias Stackelberg, Bertam von Billingshausen, Reinhold von Buxhoeveden, and Caspar Berg made a statement to the queen to confirm their standing interests. That was also done.
In 1651, Magnus became a state march of Gabriel, and a state treasurer a year later. The latter, however, turned out to be extremely inappropriate for him as a man accused of being robbed and restrained by the court. By that time, he had become one of the richest landowners in the country, which owned nearly 1,000 households and a dozen major palaces, from which most of the time was required to organize the property and decorate the palaces. Scouting, uneconomy and widespread court life often caused economic problems. The vanity, combined with light-heartedness, soon led to the destruction of his already delicate court position.
In the obvious fear that His Majesty the Queen would direct his mercy to someone else, he appeared in 1653. in November against the last accused. The goal was probably to hear comforting words. But they were not followed. Instead, the queen's rage and the expropriation of the former protege from the court, the surrender from the treasurer and the deprivation of several possessions. Neither did the female brother Karl Gustav, mother Ebba Brahe nor even the chancellor of the state, Axel Oxenstierna, help. Thirty-year-old Count Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie, who loved power, brilliance and social attention, was humiliated and pushed away.
The connections of Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie to Saaremaa fall during his period of political ascent. The war between Denmark and Sweden, which forced him to interrupt his trip to Italy, ended with the Brömsebro Peace Treaty on 13 August 1645.
On September 26, Kristiina also appointed Riga Governor Anders Eriksson as Governor of Saaremaa and instructed him to take over the island from the Danes on October 31, releasing the knighthood from all obligations and obedience to the King of Denmark. The takeover was delayed in November because in the meantime, Polish King Wladyslaw Saaremaa was trying to catch up, which nevertheless did not happen.
On September 2, 1646, Queen Kristiina Magnus made Gabriel the first royal office in Saaremaa - Elme Manor (called Magnushof in German). 1648 On June 8th, another 10 regions and manors were added to it, and on 16 September the same year, Kuressaare Castle with ammunition and cannons.
On November 25, 1648, the county of Kuressaare was the top of the donation line. The Count's title, in turn, was accompanied by enormous privileges, including spiritual jurisdiction. Magnus Gabriel was given the right to appoint the head of the Saaremaa Church, a superintendent whose rights were equal to those of the same officials in the Swedish state. On June 9, 1649, Ruhnu Island was added as a new donation.
On November 29 of the same year, Kristiina wrote a letter about licenses and a sum of up to 3000 bucks to support the Kuressaare garrison. It should not be forgotten that, in addition to these donations in Saaremaa, both Magnus Gabriel and his wife received royal gifts elsewhere in Sweden.
One of the first possessions of the young Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie was Kuressaare, and immediately after receiving the donation, he started to learn the situation here. In 1645 the Swedes had taken over from the Danes a rather decayed fortress. The walls were certain, but the furnishings were poorly preserved. Swedish Deputy Governor Johan Utter described the situation in very dark colors and suggested that the fortress be demolished at all or completely rebuilt.
1648 an inventory and a series of documents preserved in the Stockholm War Archives give an idea of the Kuressaare fortress in the middle of the 17th century. The main part of the fortress was a closed fortress built around a small courtyard in a closed cube during the bishops. At the end of the 1500s, the medieval moat and the outer ring wall were complemented by bastions that sailed south to the sea; through the bastion, the arched gate led out of the fortress. Some circular towers had a previous ring wall in the parishes.
To the north of the fortress, a small and wretched settlement, which, at the time of the Danes, in 1563, had become the city rights. Immediately after the city was handed over to the Swedes, it was devastated by another fire. In 1649, Johan von Rodenburg, a flat-rate apartment inspector, placed all his activities in Kuressaare after the inspection, as the insurance was old and the port was poor. On his suggestion it would have been necessary to build a new town on the shore of Sõrve, next to a lighthouse built by Swedes in 1646.
From a maritime point of view, they found this location much more favorable. At the same time, there was a good harbor, hidden in the storm and quite deep in the harbor of Sääre. Several manufactories were planned for processing flax, hemp, fruit and leather. The proposal was also enjoyed by Deputy Governor Johan Utter.
In 1649, the Countess of Magnus, Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie, became General Governor of Livonia. Located in Riga, he was now much closer to his possession here in the Baltic Sea. The Count sent Franz Stimer, a master builder to Saaremaa, to explore the possibilities of new buildings here. In Kuressaare, Sumer found a fortified fortress that was in disrepair at that time.
But he was impressed by its solid and good walls, so he thought it was impossible to change the medieval castle "zu einem zierlichen, bequemen und lustigen Schloss" (a beautiful, comfortable and pleasant castle). Stimer sincerely appreciates the medieval masters as the walls were erected "gerad and winkelicht auf gutem Fundament. Albereits besser stehet. geschoss mit gewölbten Gemächern mit Pfeilern wie alhie zu Riga. /.../ und ist alles gut, fest und seine stark noch erhalten "(straight and on a good foundation, better standing than it is in our day. Especially great are vaulted cellars , kitchen, bread baking and brewery, right next to each other, and the rooms on the next floor with vaulted pillars, like Riiaski. /.../ and it's all well, compact and well preserved).
Stimer offered to develop a proper castle plan for the Count, also making the corrections he intended. He planned to prepare a small model to explain his rebuilding plans. Later letters to Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie reveal that he has begun this work.
According to Stimer's plan, major rebuilding was in the fortress. It was planned to make the courtyard more spacious by eliminating the "corridors" surrounding it - crossings. There was a fountain in the courtyard. The facades were planned to be decorated with pilasters and ornaments, every four corners were to be built with a tower and balconies on the roof.
The chapel was equipped with a new fixture and new board levers for the cabinet. Medieval Gothic vaults and columns were destined to disappear, as in other rooms they were supposed to be replaced with wooden panel ceilings. It was planned to build "new fashion" stoves. The medieval stone fortress had to become more of a castle, both externally and modernized.
In front of the castle, a gate building with two side pavilions had to come out of the stone. Special attention had to be paid to the portal. The old ring wall was meant to restore the existing medieval towers and equip them with "polite domes", plus four new towers. The castle had to include a garden with alleys, pavilions, a bathhouse and a laboratory. Beauty gardening has been one of many counting interests. In the 17th century, nature was appreciated, but since everything was wild and wild, that is to say loud, attempts were made to create order and symmetry. To all of his castles, where it was possible, he let the best architects plan large gardens. Otherwise he did it himself.
While Stimer worked in Saaremaa, the Count turned to a more senior, senior of one of the leading architects of Sweden at that time, Nicodemus Tessin, who also commissioned drawings of the reconstruction of Kuressaare Castle. In 1651, Tessin had received a royal scholarship to supplement himself in Italy, France and the Netherlands. During this trip abroad, probably in Italy, she has also completed this Kuressaare project, which has not been retained, but there is a detailed explanation of the project in the Swedish State Archives.
The plan of Tessin's parent includes both the castle and the city. To a small extent, he has taken into account the existing buildings (the moat and bastion), the rest of the architect, who has never been with his feet in Saaremaa, has been completely "white".
According to his plan, the castle's three-storey main building consisted of two broader and two narrower wings connecting them. The lower floors of the facades were equipped with arches, upper with drawings. Above the inner moat, there were two obelisk or shaped marked access roads to the castle. The vaulted porch through the main facade reached the courtyard.
On the opposite side, directly in front, the arched pillar of the rear wing was opened, the sides standing on the sides. Having arrived at an oval shop, a monumental staircase began, which led to the premises in this wing - through a hall that stretches over two floors and into a chapel. From the top, this dome was placed above the stairway of the wing.
The mid-axis perspective continued over the open staircase that reached the moat, "which was very chic for walking". The front wing main staircase led to the first floor of the castle, with a dining room and a gallery in the middle. On one side, there was a flat with a guest room, an auditorium, a cabinet, a writing room, a bedroom, a study room and a wardrobe, and another half of the countless private rooms that generally copied the count. Five separate staircases on the ground floor were added to the laundry rooms, including a room with a recessed pool in the middle. There were several so-called "bass" on the floor. useful spaces, such as a kitchen with all the facilities. Both the Count and Countess Special Spaces rang from the rear wing party to the chapel. The third floor floor plan was similar to the other one.
The "explanation" of Tessin also describes the buildings belonging to the castle: the commandant's apartment, barracks, laundries, the dwelling, the master and the deputy mayor's dwellings. Bastions were about to modernize existing towers. The project also included a city plan where the main streets were designed as alleys, and the church, churchyard, town hall, command house, hospital, arsenal, etc. were placed in suitable places.
Nicodemus Tessin's older Kuressaare redevelopment plan was something new for the Baltics as well as for all of Sweden at that time. It was the first project of this kind, which he did during his foreign studies, probably in 1652, and which reflected in particular the tendencies prevailing in Italian, but also in the castle culture of France. The Kuressaare project has been considered an ideal project from its classic Italian baroque, with recognizable features found at other Swedish townships (Drottningholm, Skokloster).
The direct example of this is probably Nicodemus Tessin's younger, who realized it as the Royal Palace of Stockholm, though with much larger and richer form variations.
Such a castle, as Tessin had designed in Saaremaa without visiting the site, could not be realized here. This was also understood by the Count, who decided broadly in favor of Stimer's plan. Instead of building a completely new castle, he tried to modernize the existing one, with the help of experienced craftsmen. It was only planned to change the interior of the castle as it was considered essential, the new look was the main thing. The four corner towers and high roof balconies with open balconies had to give the castle a lively and picturesque silhouette. It was planned to increase the window openings. The walls were then designed to give a classicistic look either with stuki or with paintings. The idea of a crash's building intentions is given by the plan maintained by the Swedish War Archives, which some researchers have associated with master apartment master Johan Wärnschiöld in 1652. a visit to Saaremaa (S. Karling), others (K. Aluve) considered N. Tessin as a reconstruction project for Elder Kuressaare.
It has an old fortress with reinforced ravelins, and a city built right next to it, to protect six Dutch type bastions. The city plan is marked, where the central square was surrounded by quadrangular quarters of different sizes. The land freely adjacent to the fortress was planned for various garden facilities that the count wanted to see there.
The Count has made hand-made sketches on the plan: his sketched castle (similar to Tessin's), angular and bastion towers. Next to the castle, the Count has outlined a large pavilion with a fence and one of the largest buildings on the market, probably a town hall. He has placed various social buildings - the hospital, the arsenal, etc., on the triangular edge plots. This sketch should therefore represent the Kuressaare Count's own proposal, where it combined the elements of both the Stimer and the Tessin project. According to the last drawings, the Walloon buildings were supposed to come and also hoped to realize some of Tessin's city plan over time.
Among the drawings of the Count, one sketch sheet has been preserved, which is associated with the utilities planned by Kuressaare. Among other things, there is a skyscraper here. On the ground floor of a two-storey building there were rooms for city dwellers, a guild hall and a town cellar, rooms at the headquarters on the railroad and a large county court hall. Five high staircases were added to the portal, the façade was decorated with coats of arms of the count and his wife. Above the roof with open balcony, the height of the bell tower. The Count wrote about the construction in 1653 in Kuressaare: "Build a Town Hall on it. A tower with a clock. Surrounded by an open balcony. A gorgeous portal".
The described Town Hall sketch surprisingly coincides with one of these desires. There is another interesting drawing on the same page: a poor house with a central church with a central altar in the middle. The low chambers for the elderly were located around. The church was illuminated by the large windows above the roof. The poor house had been counted by a countless sheltered garden.
1652 In the spring, the Count began to prepare his trip to Saaremaa. He was full of determination and enthusiasm to modernize both the castle and its surroundings, creating the "en skön lustgård" (one beautiful garden). Already in April 1650 he signed a contract with gardener Hartvig Lilienthal. In a letter to Count von Thurn in October 1652, he once again asked for information about sending a gardener to Kuressaare. The landlord paid serious attention to improving the appearance and economic success of the city. In the same year, in 1652, he wrote to the Kuressaare Magistrate about his decision to build a lime and brick oven for the urban construction, a weighing plant, a mill on the Põduste River and a rae wine cellar.
The latter had the sole right to sell wine in the city, which gave it a decent income. The Town Hall was led by the Magistrates, and the Count was ready to help the builders. In 1650, Count Count in Kuressaare promised to hold two booths, one on Candle Day (February 2), and the second on the Day of Winners (August 10). These fairs gave trading rights to strangers for 14 days to both local residents and strangers. At the same time, citizens living in Kuressaare were divided into 10 classes and determined what someone could sell. In addition to the citizens at that time, there were still 150 sauna families in the city, which number the count has considered too big. Half of them were going to resettle it, but the other half had to find work in the city either as bearers, butchers, butchers, fishermen or unskilled workers. Fishermen were obliged to supply the fish market with fresh fish everyday. In order to earn additional income, in 1653, the Count drifted to the town of Tiirimetsa Manor together with 12 farmsteads in Lõmala.
Before returning to Saaremaa, where he had to deal with the great construction work immediately, Stimer received a mandate from the Count to pay for the works there. The contract has been signed with Marcus Hebel, sculptor. Construction work in Kuressaare was mainly concentrated at the castle, and the beginning of the modernization of the insurance and the construction of the town hall was also planned. Construction workers were sent from Sweden. Stimer's letters to the count show that in 1653 Frans "Timmer" and the stone runner Jacob Hansson worked from Haapsalu, plus 400 other men. In 1654, the number of construction workers was 100, whose main task was to demolish the walls of the western and southern sides of the castle.
New windows were cut into thick walls. In the summer of 1653, during the first and only short-term visit to Saaremaa, under the guidance of "Monsieur De la Rieve", part of the castle's premises was furnished for him.
1653 At the end, Magnus Gabriel had a fatal collision with Queen Christina. 1654 In spring, all work in Kuressaare stood still until new instructions were received. But they didn't come and the work was never continued. Stimer left Kuressaare's De La Gardie Castle in Ledk, where he was expecting new and great tasks. The Count's attention was drawn by Haapsalu, inherited from his father.
The same fate also hit the magnificent urban plans of the Kuressaare Count. In one of his unpublished letters to the magistrate of Kuressaare, apparently from the beginning of 1653, he announced the abandonment of the Town Hall building, but in April of that year he ordered an order to continue the construction. The volatile decisions were probably due to a change in the city's construction plan, as evidenced by the later location of the Town Hall. The Town Hall was only ready for savings and simplification in 1670. A number of lines have been found at the Town Hall, which show that the builders were no longer builders of the Kuressaare Count team and that the work was not under his supervision. The simple portal that adorns the façade is the only one that testifies to the original Town Hall project, as Stimer did with Magnus Gabriel's drawings. This is confirmed by the similarity of the Kuressaare Town Hall portal with that of the Läckö Castle Church, which was also produced by Stimer's drawings in 1659.
Many researchers have noted the relationship between the two arches, and today is the only testimony of both artistic and personal ties between Count Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie's two major construction projects. An asthmatic venue opposite the Town Hall was completed in 1663, a decade after the end of the county, when the city once again sank into the idyllic province of the separated province. The building itself can, however, be considered to be part of the Count's utilities program as it had ever planned.
The properties of Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie in Saaremaa were not limited to the Kuressaare fortress and the city, but encompassed all the state centers of the western parishes of Saaremaa. They are named after them in Tiirimetsa and Lõmala, Jämaja and Torgu in Anseküla parish, in Lümanda and Pajumõisa in Kihelko, Kärla and Paadla in Kärla, Elme, Eikla, Pähkla and Suuremõisa in Kaarmal, Mustjala in Mustjala, Karja Karja and Muhu. The eastern part of the island became his father's inheritance.
Already in 1645, Magnus Gabriel conducted a review of the manors there, allowing them to study all of them from a structural point of view. According to the land register, the eastern part of the island consisted of five agencies: Saare (Holmhof), Uuemõisa (Neuenhof), Maasi (Masick), Karja (Karris) and Lõve (Löwell). The book also contains descriptions of individual manors with their fields, meadows, forests and fish. This is why the Saare Manor is called the "Lustful Place" because of its oaks and beautiful views. Next to the manor there was a lake with coconut and other delicious fish. The meadows were good, but the peasants lacked firewood. However, there was enough fuel for the manor.
The fields of Karja Manor, located 4 miles from Kuressaare, have been of average goodness, more suitable for growing rye than barley. Eight meadows (reports), their position and characteristics, and the poor fishing conditions are described. At the same time, there is a notice of a mill on the river Leisi. The manor was full of wood as well as firewood, elk and lynx in forests more than anywhere else. An analogous description is also found in the Land Book about Lion.
The Muhu Authority consisted of 8 vacancies with 35 villages and 213 households. The manor house described here has been a roofed building, where only a few doors were equipped with iron bars and links, in some rooms there were simple wood stoves and only a few windows had glasses. Outside was an old brewery, a new sauna and a "härbärge" ruler with a roof. Unfortunately, it is not clear which manor house you are talking about. Here you will find an overview of the meadows, the food at that time and the household items.
There is also a list of peasants with interesting information about their family members (especially sons) and livestock. Here it turns out. that every farm had 1-3 horses, 1-4 bulls and 1-7 cows. In 1592, just under 50% of Muhu farms had been inhabited, then in 1648 they had been inhabited. at the time of the audit, only 3% of them were empty.
When, in 1650, Magnus Gabriel visited the Saaremaa estate by the master builder Franz Sumer, he was tasked with presenting the situation in the smaller manors of the county besides the Kuressaare fortress inspection. Elme Manor, which became the property of Magnus Gabriel since 1646, has been a demanding wooden house with ruins of an older stone building. The builder found that, due to the name of the manor (Magnushof), static buildings should be built here.
Kärlat praised him as a very "lazy place" with "beautiful flowing water", hunting and fishing. Stimer recommended that the manor be built. The medieval castle of Maasilinna was only followed by awe-inspiring ruins with a foundation (length 152 feet, width 28 feet) and three vaulted basements. According to Sumer, the old foundation would have been able to build a new house with relatively sluggish expenses, but he found himself a little surprising. The more he suggested the Saare Manor, which was the "best and most lively place in the country". There was a fish, a hunter and a beautiful forest that was well suited for building a zoo. The existing stone house was old and unsuitable, but a new one should be built instead. As can be seen from one of the letters sent by Sumer, the count was also in Ansüla, which also remained a plan. None of these places could be started with the construction work, as the time of Kuressaare's Count Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie in Saaremaa was too short.
Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie1's attitude towards land ownership has been compared to that of his father. If the latter is considered to be a trader, who valued and ruled his possessions from this point of view, Magnus Gabriel, on the other hand, burdened them with debt, pledged and sold them. In this short time he was the master of Saaremaa, he made several deals with his manors here.
In 1653, he besieged 200 adams. In addition, he carried out several exchanges: in the same year he gave 8 1/4 adrams of the parish of Kõljala of the parish to 15 households and the 13 3/4 adams of the village of Kaarma parish to the Friedrich Nolcken in the village of Keskvere, Ledika and Mönika. ) 7 1/2 landmark manor houses, 14 Adrams farmland, 20 fishing grounds and meadows.
The owner of Kaarma Parish, Mullutu Manor, handed him 3 3/4 Adrams of the same size against Randverest in Jõempa village, Kärla parish. Magnus Gabriel Laugu, Metsküla and Nurme villages of the Praja manor were given up by Magnus Gabriel parish in the parish of Laugu in the Kaarma parish. In Pöide parish, he sold 11 1/2 adrams for Otto Schulmann for 3,000 bucks, connecting them with his Tumala manor lands. As it turns out from one of 1665. The main interest of the Count was to earn as much cash as possible from his premises. But that did not mean that he had cared for them badly. On the contrary, he was constantly working to improve the condition of his manors, to decorate them, to make expensive rebuilds and new buildings. This, of course, affected his Swedish possessions.
Although Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie lost his possessions in Saaremaa by abandoning Kristiina's throne, he remained one of the largest magnets in the Baltic provinces with a part of his father's mansions, and with the compensation he had received from his brother, King Karl X Gustav. As is evident from a later letter from the king, depriving the possessions did not mean losing the title of the Count of Kuressaare. And it was not only about his own, but also about his brothers Pontus Frederik, Jacob Casimir, Axel Julius, sister Maria Sofia and son Gustav Adolf.
On July 6, 1655, in a letter from Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie, the king announced that he would restore him to the county of Kuressaare, which his Majesty promised to do. However, the real compensation for the county of Kuressaare arrived more than a year after the king's death. April 8, 1661 In the donation letter, Queen Hedvig Eleonora reiterated all the circumstances that the Count had missed from his county, as well as the King's promise to return it to him, his brothers and heirs, and, if that were not possible, to compensate another region with the same income. Sufficiently well-preserved exchange was thought to be the county of Pärnu, which was formerly owned by Thurn von Valsassina, and which De la Gardie received "as long as the county of Kuressaare was restored".
Although the county of Kuressaare was never restored, it did not mean the end of the count's possession on Saaremaa. On August 20, 1667, Kristiina, an ex-ancestor, who, after giving up the throne, had left Saaremaa as a land of profit, her former favorite Magnus Gabriel De la Gardiele Elme and Randvere manors.
Later, in 1671, he ordered Gustav Kurck, the governor-general of his commercial countries, to replace them with Muhu Island. In 1682, when the reduction in Livonia was in full swing, the Queen gave a new order: to reduce Muhu Magnus from Gabriel's son Gustav Adolf. The latter turned to the king for help, because he was "seized" without trial. In January 1683 King Charles XI ordered the rebuilding of De la Gardie in Muhu. Despite being confiscated again after Kristiina's death in 1689, Magnus Gabriel's son, who at that time held the office of Svea Courthouse and President of the Pomeranian Reduction Office, managed to keep Muhu out of his wages.
After Karl X Gustav's seat on the throne in 1654, Magnus hoped to fully rehabilitate Gabriel De la Gardie, but at least initially he had to settle for minor occupations (Chancellor of Uppsala University and Governor General of Livonia and Västergötland).
In his death bed in 1660, King Kuressaare named the Count as State Chancellor. The great knowledge, diplomatic and administrative experience, accompanied by personal charm, gave the necessary competence for foreign policy management. In terms of internal policies, assessments of his work have been very harsh. However, the contribution of Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie to the promotion of science and fine arts is indisputable. As already explained, he played a remarkable role in introducing late baroque to Sweden. During his time as State Chancellor in 1666, a royal poster was issued, with Sweden becoming the first nationally organized heritage protection in Europe, including Estonia and Livonia. At his initiative, Lund University was founded. Most reading would go long.
At the end of the 1670s, the national opposition to the State Chancellor sharpened, leading to the abandonment of an aging and ill-fated De la Gardie in 1680. There was an extensive reduction in mansions. As a result, despite his close kinship with the king himself, he lost all his possessions beyond Venngarn and Höjentorp, which were retained for him and his wife until the end of his life. For the last years of life, the first man of the former court sent Venngarn in isolation, without losing hope again. Kuressaare Count Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie died on 26 April 1686 and was buried in the Varnham Monastery Church. One year later, her husband, Maria Eufrosyne, also died, bringing up a total of 11 children. Only three of them came to marry, but so did daughters Ebba Hedvig (married to Oxenstienia).Catharina Charlotta (married to von Köningsmarck) as the son of Gustav Adolf died childless.
Saaremaa Museum Two Year Book 1995 - 1996