The idea of ​​enlightenment that was widespread in the Baltic States since the second half of the 18th century raised the public's attention to the problem of the citizen of the society. The question was also raised by the Estonian citizen as a citizen who was afflicted with serfdom in his country.

Johann Gottfried Herder (1744-1803), studying the folklore and language of many European nations, including the Baltic States, proved the equal heights of the creative spirit of all nations. Building on the concept of natural progress, Herder developed a philosophical doctrine of the progress of history as a movement of society towards humanism. According to this, there could be no justification for crowding out one nation for the other by organizing the life of society, as it had historically developed in Livonia and Estonia.

Balthasar von Campenhausen (1745-1800), the governor of Livonia appointed as deputy governor of Kuressaare, founded the "Saaremaa Enlightenment Age". In the next century, there were a number of liters of ideas about their attitude to life and their vision.

Johann Wilhelm Ludwig von Luce was the most versatile and influential leader in the new activities of Saaremaa since then . His goal was to build a new, more open civil society. His activities were aimed at shaping a new local order of life, accompanied by a change of attitude towards the indigenous people of the land. The level of this change, however, did not rise to the level of the Herder's spirit, even though Lucel himself had good relations with the local population.

Deputy Chief of Campenhausen from the Kuressaare period is the first announcement of the beginning of German-language journalism in Saaremaaa. According to the well- known literary scholar Rudolf Põldmäe, the newspaper "Arensburgische Wochen- oder Intelligenzblätter" , founded in 1785, wasoriginally written, but later printed and probably in Riga.

In the Baltic sub-layers, the idea of ​​lighting was channeled only to religious lighting. In the first half of the 19th century, the Bible associations laid the foundations for a wider spread of the Estonian-language clergy, allowing them to print unprecedented amounts of Bible and other gifts with their charitable donations. religious literature.

Only Otto Wilhelm Masing, who claimed that Estonians needed higher and better school education than just reading skills and knowledge of spiritual books, opposed the promotion of a spiritual word. Interestingly, the direction of Masing was followed in Saaremaa, where pastors and other educated Baltic Germans paid attention to educating the peasantry by setting up parish schools beside reading schools, where the level of teaching rose and corresponded to the level of urban schools. In addition to the acquisition of spiritual literature, thought was also given to secular writing and its quality. The need to establish a printing house in Saaremaa arose for both one and the other to be more smooth.

Societies and the necessity of establishing a printing house in Saaremaa

The beginning of printing in Saaremaa is related to the enthusiastic social activities of that time. It has not been much spoken in the Estonian-language writing that the Baltic-Germans who became culturally inhabited by their place of residence, including many of the state-owned Germans raised by the Russian government in the nobility, were very active social partners throughout the whole of Livonia.

On the Russian Tsar's birthday, June 25, 1834, a central cultural exploration society was founded in Riga, which included its membership from all over historical Livonia. It was the Gesellschaft und Altertumskunde der Ostseeprovinzen RuBlands of the Baltic Sea Provincial History and Ancient Studies Society of Russia . Under the articles of association, a board of directors, consisting of a president, eight directors, a secretary, a cashier, a librarian and a museum inspector was elected to promote the company's activities.

The first president was the landlord of Livonia, Hermann von Campenhausen (1773-1836). Later presidents should be named Carl Eduard Napiersky (1853-1860), well-known humanitarian scientists of his time, August Wilhelm Buchholtz (1860-1875), Heinrich Julius Böthführ (1885-1890) and others.

Two of the eight co-directors had to reside permanently in Riga. Depending on the number of members of the association, one to two co-directors were elected from Estonia and Courland in each province. One director was elected from Saaremaa and the rest were from other Livonians. The coat of arms of the Society was divided into four and the coats of the Curonian Spit, Livonian, Estonian and Saaremaa were placed on it. The aim of the Society was to develop scientific activities and publish scientific creation. All members were required to contribute to the company's activities through research and writing.

The first director of Saaremaa Department was appointed in 1834. In December, Peter Wilhelm von Buxhoeveden (1787 Vila m. Muhus - 1841 Kuivastu m.). Buxhoeveden, who studied law at the University of Tartu, was already a landmark of Saaremaa in 1818. In 1818, he participated in the drafting of the Livonian Peasant Act in Riga and organized the implementation of the law passed in Saaremaa next year.
As the owner of Kuivastu and a couple of smaller manors, he also worked on practical agriculture and established an agricultural bank and a loan company in Saaremaa.

PW von Buxhoeveden was also the main organizer of the establishment of the Kuressaare Higher Noble School and the expansion of Saaremaa County Hospital. It was in 1838 that the first extensive concept of Saaremaa history appeared - from "Beiträge zur Geschichte der Provinz Oesell".

The other co-directors of Buxhoeveden were all from Livonia, although some of them represented Estonia and Courland. Carl Johann Hermann von Engelhardt (1771-1841) was a lawyer in his field, and from 1824 to 1836 he was a Landlord of Livonia. His wife, Juliane Charlotte, was the sister of Estonia's co-director Gotthard August Löwis of Menar (1801-1849).

Carl Ludwig Grave (1784-1840) was the high priest, doctor and writer of the Jakob Congregation of Riga. He was the founder and member of many societies, incl. Founder of the Riga Bible Society and Secretary in 1813-1826.

Matthias Thiel (1775-1843) and Johannes Hermann Trey (1794-1849) were also nominated as co-directors .

Trey was also a Latvian literate and gave 1832-46. a. issued a newspaper in Latvian. Karl-von Tiesenhausen and Mayor Friedrich Gottfried Timm (1779-1848) also belonged to this very Riga-centered directorate . The leading force of the Society in its early years was the well-known historian C. E. Napiersky (1793-1864).

The following persons were identified as founding members of Saaremaa:
1. Land Counselor and County Judge Karl Friedrich Christoph von Buxhoeveden (1800 Kuressaare - 1866 Kuressaare) - organizer of farmland regulation, founder of peasant schools, co-director of the ancient society Saaremaa in 1842-1861. In 1851 he appeared. The treatment of the history of Saaremaa manors in Riga - "Beiträge zu einer älteren Geschichte der oeselschen Landgüter und ihrer Besitzer" .

2. County Counselor Karl Friedrich von Buxhoeveden (1781 Muhu Võlla m. -1848 Kuressaare) - Director of the Saaremaa Economic Government.

3. Ottomar Matthias Gustav von Buxhoeveden (1801 Muhu Suuremõisa - 1861 Kuressaare) - Kärla khk. Paadla et al. the owner of the manors.

4. Erumajor Alexander Ludwig von Ditmar (1781 Pskov - 1856 Kuressaare) - Treasurer of the Greek Chamber, ambassador of the nobility.

5. Major General Georg Wilhelm von Ditmar (1789 Pskov - 1852 Kuressaare) - Later Saaremaa Land Marshal (1842-49), previous brother.

6. Alexander von Güldenstubbe (1786 Muratsi - 1848 Rome) - Landlord, Conservative president, translator of many religious images into Estonian.

7. Johann Wilhelm Ludwig von Luce (1756 Hasselfelde - 1842 Kuressaare) - a very versatile cultural figure, a member of many scientific societies and a literary production with the largest print production in Saaremaa. Already in 1817 he had founded an association for the study of Estonian language and culture in Kuressaare.

8. Karl Pontus von Nolcken (1800 Kuressaare - 1846) - Chief of Forestry, took part in two round-world trips as a naval lieutenant; already in 1836 out of the company.

The members of the newly formed cultural association had a number of culturally representative personalities, along with pastors and landlords, doctors, lecturers of the University of Tartu and others. Let's name a lawyer and historian, Friedrich Georg von Bunget (1802-1897), Professor of the University of Tartu, Heinrich Georg von Jannaud (1789-1869), Pastor of Võnnu, Eduard Körber (1770-1850; father of Martin Körber), cartographer Ludwig August Mellini (1754-1835), historian Johann Friedrich von Recket (1764-1846). One of the company's key media channels was the first Baltic weekly magazine "Inland" .

The publishing activities of the Society were secured through links between the publisher of Riga and Leipzig and the bookseller Nikolaus Eduard Frantzen (1798-1855). Born in the merchant's family, Frantzen had acquired the largest and most prestigious bookstore in Riga in 1830, Hartknochi-Hartmann, and belonged to the German book merchants union as well as Franz Kluge in Tallinn. Frantzen had links with booksellers in other major cities in the Baltic States.

In the first half of the 1840s, the Estonian Book Society, taught in Tartu, played an important role in the book story of Kuressaare. From then on, bookshelves established in other Estonian cities were equipped to make Estonian-language books more accessible to Estonians. In 1840, such business was established in Kuressaare, in addition to Pärnu, Paide, Viljandi, Rakvere and Haapsalu. At the time of the creation of this book, besides F. R. Kreutzwald, the greatest merits were Laurentian congregation Conrad Eduard Hessel (1796 Tartu - 1882 Kuressaare). In this book he organized an Estonian "peasant trader" with Karl Linnas. The difficulty arose only because the City could read, not write, and Hesse had to revise and control the warehouse itself. The city died already in 1844 or 1845; his widow Catharina (born Include) married in 1846. Simon Lange from Kiheliste.
In 1842, P. Hintze became the new trustee of Kuressaare, who for some time also advised the City in accounting.

In this way, the necessary links were established between the legacy researchers and brokers of all the Baltic suburbs, and the publication of articles and studies took place at the level of the era both locally and in Germany.

P. von Buxhoeveden and JWL von Luce, members of the Society, published the first historical and historical studies on Saaremaa. F. S. Stern, a school teacher at Kuressaare School of Education, became one of the co-workers of the Society . To complement the lithographs depicting the peasants of Saaremaa, which were valued to this day, a corresponding cultural history text was compiled. This text was created by a lawyer born in Saaremaa, baron Ludwig von Sass of the Livonian Courthouse (1824 Tõlluste m. - 1869 Gries in the Italian Alps), who in 1850 joined the Heritage Society and was elected in 1862. as its co-director. His writing was published in 1865. Leipzig, without the name of the author, is known by the title: "Studien-Skizze über die Estnische Volksschule (auf der Insel Oescl). Beitrag zur Zeitfrage" .

So far, the author of the text has been questioned, as P. von Sass has been written in manuscript as the only copy in Estonia, which belonged to the Library of the Estonian Literary Society. Since at that time none of the forenames beginning with P, von Sass, lived in Saaremaa, it is still not possible to identify the author. In fact, the acronym is probably an acronym for baron. At the end of the foreword, the author comes to terms with the time and place of writing: March 1864, the Chillon resort - that's when Ludwig von Sass stayed there.

This includes the following parts:
1) the origin, name and language of the Estonians, the situation, buildings and previous faith, Saaremaa's strongman Tõll, other coastal peoples - coastal Swedes and Danes -, the anthropology of Estonians;

2) everyday life of Estonians at that time, parenting, Germanization;

3) schools, religion, church teachers, camps before parish schools, village and rural schools, school buildings, fines;

4) the need for school education for Estonians, proposals to promote their life.

The patriot and researcher of the home island was also Ferdinand Arthur von Sass, brother of Ludwig von Sass (1837 Tõlluste m. - 1871 Tõlluste), who was co-director of the ancient society Saaremaa in 1867-1871. Just in 1865, the brothers von Sassid were also one of the founders of the establishment of the Saaremaa Research Society (Verein zur Kunde Oesels). Since Arthur von Sass was a chemist and a mineralogist, he was a doctor of natural sciences, so he was interested in the nature of Saaremaa. He published scientific articles on the occurrence of wolves in Saaremaa and Muhumaa, as well as on the flora of Saaremaa and neighboring islands. Researchers in particular consider their research on the hydrological and hydrochemical conditions in the Baltic Sea (water level, salinity, icing, etc.) to be particularly important.

The first famous artist of Saaremaa, Friedrich Sigismund Stern (1812 Kuigats - 1889 Riga), was here from the owner, painter and graphic designer of the Tartu stone printing house, Georg Friedrich Schlater. Stern had already used lithography equipment in Tartu, and when he started to go to Saaremaa he had a lithopress. Kuressaare their new print shop, he also announced the opening of the newspaper "Inland" on 16 April 1841. Both reached a new printing technique Saaremaa earlier than the venerable Gutenberg's invention. However, since the print shop needed a regular printing house, an attempt was made to establish it in 1846. Namely, "Inland" (No. 35) announced in September that the plan to establish Saaremaa as a branch of Tartu [Laakmann?] Printing house city and provincial printing house has failed. The question was also whether the aid could not be found in Riga.However, the Kuressaare litopress went on sale after Stern's death.

At the same time, Kuressaare's book trade in the middle of the century was quite advanced. In 1852, a new bookstore was established here. It was erroneously mistaken for Friedrich Richard Eupel , who was born only in 1839 (died on 1877-1879). The real founder was the versatile businessman Heinrich Johann Jürgens (1824 Tallinn - 1867 Bad Reichenhall), who since 1850. was a shareholder of C. Rahri's shipping company operating in Kuressaare.
She married Bertlia Niemann, the daughter of the older mannium of the Grand Guild of Riga.

Jürgen's activities as a book merchant continued until the early 1860s when he became the economic manager of the Riga-Salaspils railway construction and lived mainly in Riga.

In 1861 and 1862, an opportunity was offered to order "Pärnu Postimees" and "Cross National Day" from the Jürgens bookstore in Kuressaare. Apparently Jürgens continued his business in Kuressaare since 1865. operated bookseller Heinrich Theodor Lange (1835-1909), who acted as the shop owner's death. In 1872 he also bought FR Eupel's bookstore.

The necessity of the printing house was particularly well understood in connection with the plans for the establishment of a local ancient and natural society at the end of the 1850s. According to the model of partnership that began with the enlightenment era, each agency had to contribute to the improvement of the world by spreading the word. The talks with Tallinn-based printing company Jacob Johann Kelchen were probably negotiated already in 1859.
On July 16, 1860, the Municipality of Kuressaare submitted a request to the Livonian Governorate to authorize the printing house to establish a printing house. Permission was obtained and J. J. Kelchen opened his own printing house in Kuressaare. However, this fact is unknown in the history of Estonian printing. Thus, the fact that Kelchen sold his entire interior of the printing house in 1860 to Johann Arro Diesfeld, a teacher of the Tallinn Pupils' School, does not correspond to reality . Probably, Kelchen sold only part of the interior of his printing house in Tallinn, while the second part transported it to Saaremaa in 1860. It is not known whether the Kelchen printing house started to work in Saaremaa. In any case, the bibliography of Estonian-language books does not contain any Kelchen publications from 1861 or 1862.
It is believed that Kelchcn graduated from Saaremaa in connection with the establishment of the factor (leader) of the governor's office in Estonia.

However, as Jacob Johann Kelchen is the founder of Saaremaa's first printing house, he also takes a closer look at his biography.

The print was born on November 19, 1818, in Tallinn, as the son of the shoemaker Abram Kelchen. In 1858 he had three sons. From February 15, 1834, Kelchen Lindfors' heirs were Friedrich Gotthilf Montag's student-writer, but in 1853 Niguliste opened. 16 personal printers. In this regard, he had entered Tallinn as a citizen last year. J. J. Kelchen died in Tallinn on May 25, 1883.

In connection with the sale of the furnishings of the Kelchen printing house on 29 December 1862, the Municipality of Kuressaare presented a new request, this time to establish Kristjan (Christian) Assafrey in the city. The relevant decision of the Livonian Civil Governor emphasizes that the new print must first prove its professional capacity and be responsible for not printing anything without censorship. The permission of the Russian Ministry of the Interior to set up the Assafrey printing house was signed on 6 February 1863.

Print by Kristjan Assafrey originated from Vändra, two - Between and the Top - divided between the larger Pillar farmstead, where the miller was already held by his grandfather Jaan. Old John had seven sons, most of whom had to leave the farm and look for a job elsewhere. Kristjan was born on May 31st 1837 as son of Jakob (1806-1855) and Ann Assafrey. In 1839, Jakob went to the Pilistvere parish in Kabala. Kristjan Assafrey's older brother, Johann, moved to Tallinn in 1854 and held an artist and painting cadet at Viru Street in Sokolowsky. After his father's death, in 1856 he left his brother in Tallinn with a future print. Apparently, both brothers have initially received support from their father, one of the brothers, who held the greenery on Viru Street in Tallinn. One of the brothers Assafreyd was also a good friend of JV Jannsen, who was mentioned in his book "Let's Go to the City ..." by E. Peterson-Särgava.

It is not exactly known how Kristjan Assafrey was studying the printing office. He was probably working as an artist with his brother and Jacob Johann at Kelchen's printing house. K. Assalrey was known for other art crafts - photography. His activities as the first professional photographer in Kuressaare have been more and more considered as a typographer. When Johann Diesfeld's Printing House In 1862 In the first half of the year, it was auctioned by Kristjan Assafrey. (As an interim remark: J. Diesfcld was a dead man before September 1872, because his wife Wilhelmine (born Michelson) was then referred to as a deadly widow. Thus, reality reports do not correspond to the fact that Diesfeld lived a quarter of a century after his bankruptcy abroad and then returned to Estonia .)

Assafrey, as a new owner of a printing house, was granted a license to operate in Tallinn on November 4, 1862. Already in 1862. At the end of the year, "Eestirahwa mönnus Kalender" came out of a printing house at the Rehleinder House in Viru Street , which was published in several newspapers in Tallinn. A total of 13 Estonian-language publications were published in Assafrey during the Tallinn period, accounting for 11% of all Estonian-language publications at that time. He continued to print the Kelchen and Diesfeld calendars and published books such as "Casserole Casino" , F. Brandt's "Mirror of Ello and Death" and others.

In 1863, Assafrey moved to Kuressaare with his own printing house. September 29, 1869 a. he married Sophie Elisabeth Eissfeldt (1849 Kuressaare - 1913 Kuressaare), whose father was a baker from Mecklenburg, but his mother (born Falkenberg) came from Saaremaa. In 1871 the son Ernst was born and in 1873 he was born. daughter Anna Luise. According to A. Vinkel, the printing house was originally located on Kauba Street, where Eupel and Lange's bookstores and binding workshops were located. 1870 In November, Assafrey took it to Garnison Street (current house No. 17).

She also advertised her production in Estonian-language newspapers such as "Estonian Postimees" ("New Books 1867 printed in Assatrey" - 1868, No. 14) and "The Cross of the People's Sunday in the Journal" ("Launched at Assafrey in Kuressaare, at Kluge & Ströhm in Tallinn get "- 1878, No. 29 and 30).

Kristjan Assatrey died on 18 June 1874 (vkj.) And was buried four days later at Kudjape Cemetery. The company he created was operating for another ten years under the name "Assafrey Heritage Printing House". In the beginning, the company was led by a widow. searched through a newspaper ad for a young man who could be trained to print.

The widow was married only in 1878 with Oswald Gundalini, a pharmacist educated at the University of Tartu (1854 Muhu - 1910 Riga). At first, the young pharmacist seems to have headed the printer alongside her husband. In 1884, Carl Simon, a resident of Pajumõisa, applied for a print shop, but did not get approval from the city government. In 1885 it was announced that the Assafrey Heritage Printing House was doing a great variety of print jobs, while buying a variety of books and an open reading table. It is not impossible that the interior of this company was the basis for Maria Grünling's printing house, which was opened in 1891. Kubermangu t. 21, but finished already in 1893.

 

Kristjan Assafrey's activity as a printing press

Kristjan Assafrey's printing activity fell into a period of general revival of social life, which led to greater activity and courage in national cultural life. Estonian-language print production has multiplied over a short period of time, which can be considered as one of the indicators of the awakening of the spiritual life of the people. Although Christian spirituality literature was still prevalent, the importance and significance of the secular literary word increased significantly compared to the previous decade. This is also reflected in the analysis of K. Assafrey's 1860s production.

 

Year Estonian
publications at all
Of them Assafrey
printing house
Ratio Assafrey other languages
prints
1862 65 6 9% 2
1863 67 10 15% 1
1864 70 11 16% -
1865 81 18 22% 4
1866 83 10 12% 5
1867 67 4 6% 4
1868 58 6 10% 8
1869 60 3 5% 3
1870 65 5 8% 4
1871 48 4 8% 2
1872 70 5 7% 6
1873 79 5 6% 4
1874 89 3 3% 2
1875 89 3 3% 2
1876 108 3 3% 4
1877 100 2 2% 3
1878 153 4 3% 2
1879 184 4 2% 5
1880 185 2 1% 4
1881 199 2 1% 5
1882 139 2 1% 3
1883 213 3 1% 2
1884 182 2 1% 1
1885 174 4 2% 1
1886 141 1 1% -


About 90 publications in Estonian were printed in the Assafrey printing house during his lifetime, some of which were re-publications. In the early years of its activity, Assafrey printed an average of nearly one sixth of Estonian-language print production (by number of titles): in 1863, 10, 1864 - 11 and 1865 in 18 publications. The latter remained the peak of Assafrey, when its share of printed publications rose to 22% of all Estonian-language print production.

Of the 83 Estonian-language publications of 1866, Assafrey had already received much less - 10 titles. 1867-868. The famine of the year was the cause of this great economic downturn, which is why the production of Estonian-language books decreased both as a whole and in Kuressaare. Assafrey apparently did not recover from the shock of the economic crisis, and his print shop showed a marked downward trend. The share of printing Estonian-language books decreased year by year, in which the relative isolation of Saaremaa probably also played a role.

The well-known publishing activity of Assafrey also fell in the 1860s. half when he funded 13 publications (two in 1866 and only one in 1868). The most frequent author of Assafrey's publications was Martin Körber, whose twenty titles (with reprints) appeared. The pastor and the developer of the song culture could also help in solving censorship problems, because the censor at that time, Carl Ferdinand Mickwitz (1811-1880), lecturer at the University of Tartu, was a cousin of M. Kõrber.

Noteworthy are the release of several popular works by local authors, Carl Wilhelm Freundlich and Peter Südda . The sixth seminar director Johann Heinrichsen and Estonian accounting officer Aleksander Julius Spreckelsen were the most translators. Also interesting is the fact that the authors and translators of a series of Estonian-language religious publications have been Nikolai Orlov, the priests of the Greek-Catholic faith in Saaremaa, Aleksandr Kudrjavtsev and others.

Assafrey was also the editor of one of the best awesome sessions made by Pöide pastor Nikolai von Nolcken. In 1871, the Russian-language article by Dimitri (Demetrius) von Meves, a senior teacher of Russian language and literature at the Kuressaare Gymnasium, appeared on the vocal peculiarities of the Estonian language.

As the number of printed publications in Estonian decreased, the printing works increasingly received orders from a local German-language secondary school. In fact, in the second half of the 1870s, the printing press was mainly a typist for the upper secondary school and local Baltic German cultural figures. Already in 1865, was himself the founder K. Assalrey kuulutuste- and messages using "Annoncenblatt", in which he himself advertising photography.

Saaremaa printing house services were used by a historian with a scientific level, Jean Baptiste Holzmayer (1839 Mainz - 1890 Kuressaare), a senior scholar of classical languages ​​at the Kuressaare Gymnasium, FS Stern . He was active in the Saaremaa Research Society and founded a museum there. In the 1870s, Holzmayer became Saaremaa's leading figure in archeology and museology. Already before, he encouraged local literary folk tales and more. to collect folklore. In 1868, the first part of his "Osilian" was printed in the Assafrey printing house, the following parts of which appeared in the editions of the Teaching Estonian Society.

Holzmayer was also the author of the 86-page German-language brochure about Kuressaare as a mud health center, published by Theodor Lange. A list of 27 most impressive publications about Saaremaa has been presented in 1880 as a supplement to the printed light in Kuressaare and Riga. The Kuressaare card sold by T. Lange and the general map of Saaremaa drawn by Holzmayer himself and the lithographs of FS Sterni from local folk costumes and beautiful places, which could be purchased as separate sheets, are also advertised.

One important opportunity to do so was the execution of orders from public authorities at that time and the production of various pamphlets. Their traces are nowadays the most difficult to find, as it was often not considered necessary to record them as publications. One such professional Assafrey publication has been preserved since 1873, when Kuressaare Municipality has printed tariffs on all real estate. At the time, there were 256 real estate units in the city and 49 more in the surrounding villages - Toris, Roomassaare and Loode. The value of the list of property owners is enhanced by the provision of data by street.

The value of K. Assafrey's own property on Garnison Street was close to the rating scale. Some other Estonians in Kuressaare, such as Johann Raudsepp in Pikas Street, were the owner of the same expensive property, but the immobility of most Estonians was considerably smaller.

LIIVA AARMA,
Saaremaa Museum "Two Year Book 1997 - 1998"