Dedicated to the memory of Leo Pigeon
In the island of Västern, in the direction of Väike Strait, 2 km (3,7 km) from Orissaare, the ruins of the medieval Maas Valley are located at the corner of the sunken hill.
Unfortunately, in the years 1345-1576, the Order Castle of the Eastern Saaremaa has so far been relatively little studied. From the point of view of maritime history, the fort was also an interesting harbor, for which even fewer reports were made. In assessing the economic activity of the Maas Foundation, it seems that a port with a favorable location has a rather important part to play in it. Mainly in the development of the eastern Saaremaa manors and in connection with Muhu and Hiiumaa. However, in spite of the scarcity of reports in the treasures and the brutal approach in the history of history, we would still try to find out more precise contours for the port of Maasilinna, which would help us further the study of Middle-Eastern history in East-Saaremaa.
In several different associations, the sources have been published by well-known historians A. Tuulse, E. Blumfeldt, V. Helk, M. Körber, L. Tiik, K. Aluve and some other Baltic Germans. The main problem for them was not the harbor, but the Maas Order Castle as one of the major power centers in Saaremaa.
At least two influential factors, such as the navigability of the waterways and the harbor in the port area, must be kept in mind when considering the seaport.
A small strait than a waterway
At the beginning of the year, as a result of the development of the sea, the Väike Väin between Saaremaa and Muhu was navigable (depth 4-5 meters) and a well-used waterway. This made it easy to get to Pärnu and Riga. The bases moving from the Väina (Daugava) and Pärnu (Embecke) rivers to Scandinavia navigated by terrestrial (landmark) positioning as often as possible by observing the coastline.
Open ships with inadequate equipment avoided storms, fogs and blindfolds on the high seas, and strong currents in open coastal areas, as they appear on the Kura throat and on the western coast of Saaremaa. It can be assumed that after crossing the Strait of Väike Strait and the Soela Strait, Hiiumaa Ristna mooring could reach the so-called East Road (Austrvegr), near the Finnish archipelago.
The ships of the same time had a single large rampart, and it was supposed to fit the ship's course towards the dominant wind direction. Therefore, the course was selected either through the Strait of the Little Strait or directly through the Harry's thorax. However, along the small strait, the Tornimäe Castle and the Port, the Muhu Fortress and the Fortress of Maapensaare with the Harbor were located. In addition, there were sacrificial places in Orinelem (Orinõmme) and Sorul (here a chapel was built in the Middle Ages) and a source of pure, high quality drinking water near the Pulli bank in the sea, which vessels used to water in the 1920s.
It is possible that the ports of Little Strait also provided opportunities for ship repair and the use of the waterway was reasonably taxed. This, however, secured the safety of the voyage.
The harbor of the harbor. Pöide as Saaremaa Fruit Site
The main source of the Maasilinnian harbor has undoubtedly been the crop fields of the Pöide (Horele) parish, the densely populated area and the early Westernized Western relations that have contributed to the development of the estates in Saaremaa. The breadwind was the question of the existence of the Order.
Several traits suggest that the harbor of the harbor, which is being observed at the Tornimäe ancient cemetery, is still on the harbor of the Pöide Horele (present Ardla village) harbor. As a result of the low ground, it is 2.2 km long and 116 m long from the port to the sea, and sometimes a 4 m wide dock near the pasture lands. It is believed that this bridge initially satisfied the needs of conquerors in the 13th century and the first half of the 14th century. During this time, the Pöide church was built and the tower city was the center of the Order. The Tornimäe castle was destroyed by that time, the Kahutsi fort was not completely built, and for the local people, under the terms of the agreement, the Maapensaare fortress could be left to the deep seaport near the Väike väin. This harbor was about 6 meters deep and protected from the winds in the direction of the south, west and northwest.
For the year 1345, two years after the great uprising of the islanders' Sabbath (24th VII), which was brutally overthrown, Renner's chronicle portrayed that the islanders were forced to surrender under severe conditions. They were taken hostages, warriors (which the islanders still had the right to wear before the uprising) were led away to Lihula. The fort of the Mapenzar was forcibly destroyed by the islanders ("de scholden se stracks averants worden dartho de vesten Mapenzar dal breken").
The Wariberge Chronicle adds that the same Ordnance Burchard von Dreileben, who was suppressed in the Rebellion in Saaremaa, "built Saaremaa a good and strong castle, which Brother Goswin later made larger."
We know from the chronicles that the islanders broke the tower of the Pöide (the original form of Paida - Paene hill), and no more new buildings were built there. Therefore, the new castle (castrum) built in the ordualal can only be the town of Võru.
Inevitably, the question arises: Why was the new Order Castle Maas built?
First of all, it is clear that Mausoleum was a more favorable harbor for the Order. Here, the sea was deeper than the Tornimäe, and the experiences, which became the dominant type of ship on long seagoing ships, came directly to the castle. But from Saaremaa, it was flooded with deciduous fruits, mainly rye, dried high quality and long-life rye. The Pöide parish was already the main fruit site at Saaremaa.
Of course, it was also easier for the officials of the fossil team to contact the ports of Muhu (Koguva) and Hiiumaa. Of course, it was also possible to use the port of Kihelkonna's Rootsiküla, especially the Pajumõisa economic activity. In the first half of the 15th century, the significance of Kihelkonna harbor was mainly due to the rise of the ports of Maas and Kuressaare.
Mysteries with names
The busy trench truck currently flooded to the sunken abbey west of Maasiland. It was once the Maas River. At the mouth of the river, on the right bank of the river, the elevation rises, which, according to the indirect data, was called the Earth Island or the horn. The latter may be more correct because, after being written by foreigners, the more general name of the locality Masik and the elevation name Mapenzar.
Masik, or in the old, "straw" in the local language, means the earthworm, the horn. The Livonian language is used for the horn in the Kura throat to the present day. The mapenar in the chronicles could mean the "earth horn". By comparison, in 1254 the name of the southern hunter of Hiiumaa, which is important for the sea, is Sarwo, which later adapts to Sõruk. The same thing is the etymological change of the Sõrve names. The validity of these discussions should be checked by linguists. This tour was needed here to link the maple star with the name of Mapenzar to Maasilinna. The remnants of the fairy-tale ruined limestone protrude below the castle's circle. This opinion should be proven by archaeological excavations.
But the fact that on the right bank of the estuary was a medieval harbor bridge, reaching the sea, has been proven. In 1973, Calvi Aluve, a historian of the construction of the Calvi Aluve, explored the remains of the remains there, and became 1545 by the dendrochronological sampling of wood during the fall of trees.
The Soneburg official name of Maasilinna, located in Sassenberich (1458), originally appeared in Sonia, located in the vicinity of the harbor and with a roundabout. Some sources are written in Sonneburg - Sunset. Where to find Sühneburg - Fortress of Fortresses - not known.The name of the original form is associated with something similar to Soontagana or Muhu Soonda (Sonetacke). Thinking further that the Maas River was never a big river, it was more of a groin ... Simplified name Maansaare is the same strain that has now been preserved in the name of Maas Village and Manor.
Is the port indicated on old maps?
The ports of the seas began to mark the Dutch with an anchor mark in the 1570s. For maps of Livonia, only the shadow seaport sites are initially marked. Castles are sometimes listed as a tower group. Interestingly, Soneburg also appears after it was destroyed. But later.
The oldest map of the Maasilinn area dates back to 1780. It is kept in Tartu in the Estonian Historical Archives. On this map, you can see that there is a water catchment in the west of the fort and the name is Silma Bay. In the mouth, the gulf is bounded by the eye of the eye and two nasva, called "Bokare" (Peas), over which a bridge built on piles. It may be part of a former port facility or just a shortcut to Orikülla.
The plan made by art historian R. Guleke from the 1880s shows that Silma Kare and Bokare have grown together and have reduced the size of the Gulf to a lesser extent. The open sea merely connects the small eye. In front of the castle, a small war is raging in front of the castle - the city's nasv, which has nowadays become popular in this country due to the abundance of nesting waterfowls.
At the beginning of the 1970s, the Republican Department of Restoration Government prepared a precise geographic plan for Maasilinna. It also has ground elevation points. It turns out that the Gulf of Silma has completely grown up, and the ground there sometimes reaches 30-40 centimeters above sea level. Only the mouth of the river Maas, flowing in the sea between the battle of Silma and the bank of the stronghold of the stronghold, remains. To the east of the river, about ten meters from the river, is the place where samples of wood from the former harbor bridge were taken to explore.
Eke's substitute land (1924) was built on the west side of the castle, and fishponds on the south have been stuck. In 1875, the tenant of the Taaliku manor, Förster, began to build a new harbor three kilometers to the northwest of Maasilinn, which until 1932 was the main harbor of the Pöide economic area.
In winter of 1985, the problems of the port of Maasilinna were discussed at the Estonian Maritime Museum. The author of these lines pointed out then that the remains of the medieval ships could be found in the bottom of the Maasilinna raids, since the fort was not excavated or excavated since its destruction, and the archaeological object has remained relatively untouched. In the same summer, a short expedition was organized to explore the situation. Underwater carriers discovered after a few hours underwater one of the remains of an interesting ship.
Some of history is opened through the ship
For sailing and storing small boats, the laurel was easy to eat or boat equipped with kale boats. One-ton boats were driven to land using winches, shafts and larger packagings. Larger ships needed a port. Simpler bridges were built in the Middle Ages with piles or stones filled with cassettes. The cargo harbors were built of gravel stone blocks and covered with breakwater piers. In those places where the ships could not find themselves due to low water, loading and unloading was carried out on flat-bottomed large boats.
Based on the sleek observation results, it may initially be argued that Massilinna had a port that was originally built for coarse piles and later supplemented by crests. The last few stone piles have spread the ice to the bottom of the sea. The purpose of the museum was to fill the stone castle here, which later became the town hall.
The main type of ship, which is the 15th-16th At the seventh century, visiting the harbor of the seaside, there was a rideboat "schute", which we have been pampered for a month, but in essence it was a skateboard. In this story, the name of the ship is not very important, and it would be desirable to use the word "schute" because under its name it was well-known for the Baltic Sea port and often comes from the original source.
The wreck of the Maasilinna harbor's raids, the nearly three-meter-deep in 1986. The shipwreck that was lifted next year also turned out to be schuteks. Between the maps of the northern ending, still found rocky limestone boulders, suggesting that the ship was carrying a traditional limestone lime, which in the 16th century was as valuable and indispensable as today's cement, for the expansion and consolidation of the fortress. It is known that the Stalin Castle was built in several stages. Even the elongated, extended living room type main building has been built in two stages.
The western part of the 20.8 meter long, two-pillar part is older, and later it has been added a 26.1 meter long, single-edged (12.2 m) extension. The building was at least three storeys, of which only the first floor has been preserved under the pavilions. The main building was surrounded by a different shape with corner bars, which testifies to the construction works that have taken place at various times.
Before the Livonian War and during the war, the wall was taller and strengthened. Local lime kilns apparently could not meet the requirements of lime, and therefore lupine was transported by ships from elsewhere (mainly from Hiiumaa).
A common schute carried up to 30 cargoes (62 tons) of lupine. The capacity of a raised, lupine ship could have been 23 cargoes. The trees were excavated in 1543 and 1546. This is how dendrochronous research was performed on the test drive. (In 1991, additional studies were carried out on the carbon-carbon method, which show the ship's earlier construction time at the end of the 15th century. However, the large discrepancy between the two samples makes them initially unsustainable.)
When the ship died, it is unknown. One of the reasons for the research could be the fact that there are traces of combustion in the upper parts of the ship. The fact of the death of a ship could be, for example, a duplicate of a letter from Courland, dated 13 November 1549, and sent to Saaremaa to Herman von Dünsstorff: "Today we received your letter saying that our DAGEDISCHE KALKSCHUTE has run a war on Saaremaa beach. We have to start a new build now. Please tell me if there is anything saved from the shaggy, the rig and the shark, and whether it would be more practical to build a new one here in Kuressaare or Saaremaa. "
It is possible that this letter was followed by the construction of the Maasilinna ship.
The town of Groningen as the center of the Order of the Order worked before the Livonian War as a very strong economic entity. He was subjected to Maasi Manor, Uuemõis, Saaremõis (took over all the current territory of Laimjala Rural Municipality), Muhu Suurmõis, Pühalepa Manor in Hiiumaa and Pajumõis Kihelkonnal, a total of 690 villas, 420 free places and 332 single yards. The revenues generated by them amounted to 6,100 decals a year.
A comparison of this amount could be brought about by the simultaneous sale transaction - the bishop of Saaremaa, Johann Munchenhausen, sold his bishopric and Pilteni bishopric in Courland to the 1559 king of Denmark, Frederik II, for 30,000 points. The possession of Maasilinna was not sold at that time. They went quietly to the protection of the Danish state in 1562, and when Danish declared war on Sweden in the following year, Heinrich Wulff's foyer already resided in Kuressaare Castle as a Danish official.
The easy migration of Fogt can be explained, perhaps because the fagot band was on the command, not on the foo. In fact, the Order broke down and during the Seven Years' War between 1563 and 1570, Maas saw a host of virtual days.
It is quite possible that in the course of this war, the Maasilinna ship raised in 1987 also died. Its remains are of great interest to marine history because of the structural features. However, the white patches of Maasilinna and the history of the port grew along with this ship's site.
For example, it was necessary to know how many people lived in Võru County and whether there were also shipowners. It turned out that in 1563, when the war began, there were 80 people living in Soneburg (senior officers 9, their servants 8, military 25, weapons 3, economic staff 24, and deputy governors 8). Nothing is said about shipmen. It is very possible that they belonged to the coastal estates.
When looking at the loss of the Maasilinna ship, it should be borne in mind that in September 1563 the Swedes conquered Hiiumaa. The following year they captured the Koluvere stronghold and wanted to come to war with Saaremaa, but the ice conditions did not allow. In 1565, the Swedes captured the Saaremaa manors in Hiiumaa and sent them to Tallinn. The following year, the Danes made sailors in Hiiumaa from Saaremaa. Then they pulled back, but cursed for revenge, cleared Maasilinna and partly crushed it, in order not to allow the hijacking of the enemy. In this lie, it was also possible to burn his own ship standing in front of the fort in the winter apartment building; Fortunately, the enemy did not come and soon the restoration work started in the fortress again.
In August 1568, the commander-in-chief of the estate, Klaus Kursell, known for his history, came from Tallinn to the Swedish fleet near Maasilinna. The cast was subdued to him. After the truce, the fort was returned to the Danes in 1574.
In 1575, Duke of Soneburg conquered Magnus, and the takeover of the stronghold arose in this great fire. Danish Deputy Governor Claus Ungern informed the king that the fort is now in a state of hostility. It was not possible to do reconstruction work because the mainland threatened to invade Saaremaa by the army of Ivan the Julm.
In 1576, a larger war expedition to Saaremaa came from the continent, and on August 11 King Frederik II of Sophieholm Castle gave his assistant secretary in Saaremaa Claus Ungern the right to command Schloss Sonneburg with gunpowder. The command was completed.
Since then, the fortress stands in ruins and the former harbor is tempered by nature.
However, the corner-top corner corner of the roundabout remained uncut. It was a sea mark for marine charts for a few more years.
In 1804, a stone roof with a red roof has been drawn up for the last time on the map of Muhu Strait. The historian of the island of Saaremaa, Martin Körber, has written a legend according to which the Muhulas have been plunged by the tower of the tower on one of the dark nights. The conversation may be based on the truth, because in the late 18th century, when strong border guard was established in Saaremaa, a cordon was also set up in Orissaare, and it was possible that the tower was followed by smuggling smugglers.
In 1894-1896 a large number of stones were carried to the body of the Small Strait dam, from the ruins of the Maasilinna Ring Road and the towers. The same dam was closed by the Little Strait as the shipping route. Sailboats and boats can only be accessed in the small port of Orissaare. However, the future of Maasilinna is still undefined.
Two-year book of the Saaremaa Museum 1995 - 1996